On todays excursion, we can set down our hard hats, and relax. We are in for a special
treat. Our trip today will take us into the
world of growing Bismuth crystals! Grab your
passports, though, as we are flying into western Canada to visit a special lab. We will also
cover some normal and more exotic uses for this metallic element. Before that, though, we
must study-up first on the geology, chemistry, science, and uses of Element 83,
What is bismuth, you might ask. Well,
to begin with, it is a common element, found in
nature. To us, it can be a marvelous,
unpublicized miracle of nature and science, as you will
see. Some collect Bismuth compounds formed in
nature, whereas, others create unique
crystals in their own home labs. Some even
make jewelry from the peacock-colored gems.
We will be interviewing such a
hobbyist. His name is Ken Keraiff, and he
British Columbia, Canada.
From aerospace and medicine to sporting goods and jewelry, we will visit the many uses of
this heavy metal, which can improve our lives in more ways than inventor of the
tungsten-filament light bulb, Thomas Edison, could have envisioned!
Tungsten-filament light bulb, Ken Casey ©2005)
We will start with nature and
science (mineralogy), and expand into everyday and futuristic
applications for our shiny friend. As always,
we cover lapidary and jewelry uses.
(Italian, Portuguese, Spanish); Vismut (Swedish); Bismut (Czech)
Alchemist symbol for Bismuth)
Todays name of Element 83 is
Bismuth. It derives from several
steps in the understanding
of its identity and form. First called
weisse masse (white mass) by German miners, in
common usage it elided to wismat. Alchemists
formalized it as Bismat, as Latin language
conventions prompted a substitution of a W for the B.[i]
German scholars colloquialized it as Wismuth.
From the German and Latin
derivations (Bisemutum), the Anglicized version is Bismuth.[ii]
in allusion to its brittle nature, affirmed it to be a
"bastard" or "half-metal". The
first clear description of Bismuth as a separate metal is from Georgius Agricola
The white mass was virtually indistinguishable from other white metals, such
as lead and
tin, until Claude Geoffroy the Younger isolated it in 1753.[iv]
Now it holds a unique identity to modern science.
||Bismuth xtal, Angle #1
||Bismuth xtal, Angle #2
|Crystals grown by
Photos by Ken Casey ©2005
As an element, Bismuth is
trivalent, and chemically unstable. This
quality of potential
bonding readiness causes this metal to draw with other nearby anions, such as Oxygen (O2),
to from bismuth oxide (BiO2). Thus,
the natural state of bismuth can display (from its
oxidized surface) a pleasing peacock ore color effect. It is also one of the appealing
characteristics that lure collectors.
Visually, it is difficult to
identify bismuth from other white metals, such as tin, lead, and
arsenic, as these usually occur together in nature. Chemically,
it resembles both arsenic
Bismuths neighbors on the
Periodic Table of Elements are: Lead and Polonium. As
chemistry student would learn that Lead is the final stage of atomic decay (measured by
half-life), from other radioactive elements, so scientists suspected that Bismuth had some
radioactive properties. In 2003, researchers
at the Institut
dAstrophysique Spatiale have
determined that one of this heavy metal isotopes (Bi-209) has measurable alpha particle
emission over billions of years. The
super-long half-life guided the scientists to suggest that
Bismuth is a relatively (atomically) stable element.
Thus, it is safe for metallurgy and
Bismuth bonds with many other
elements, including organic compounds.
Bismuth oxychloride (cosmetics), Bismuth subnitrate (glazes, medicine), Bismuth
fluoride, and Bismuth salicyclate (anti-diahrreal), Bimanol (BiMn, supermagnets) are just
few. In fact, even a simple compound can
yield astounding use potential. One local
on data of many of these compounds is MV
Laboratories, Inc. of Frenchtown, New Jersey.
Elementally, Bismuth has the
strongest of all elements a property, called the Hall Effect,
which refers to its electrical conductivity potential.
Combinations of these, when
melted and forged together, become alloys. Two
uses are as Lipwitzs alloy and Woods metal (both made of Bismuth, lead, tin,
the latter being used in building fire protection sprinkler heads.[vi]
see later some of the advanced uses of this native metal.
Geology, Occurrences & Mining
Here are some pictures of naturally occurring Bismuth found at:
Community Colleges Earth Science Image Archive.
According to Dr. Ken Rubin, Assistant
Professor in the Department of Geology and
Geophysics, University of Hawaii, Bismuth proliferates in volcanism.
forms mainly into hydrothermal deposits after having been dissolved in magmatic
groundwater. It then lies into matrix rock
cracks. Its highly charged or massive ions
with other nearby metals to form an associated complex.
That is why we find it along with
Stibnite (Sb2S3) and sulfur minerals as Bismuthite (Bi2S3). Other chalcophiles occurs as
well, such as Lead, Copper, Zinc, and Mercury.
The grander scale tectonic
activity of plate subduction zone volcanoes generally holds the
bulk of Earths Bismuth. It has been
discovered as a constituent in volcanic outgassing. We
Bismuth shares geochemical affinities with other heavy main group elements in
group 5 (Sb, As), as well as the group 4 elements Sn and Pb. Its halogenated
compounds are fairly volatile (as are halogenated compounds of Pb and Po) and it
is released fairly effectively to the gas phase during volcanic eruptions (with an
efficiency of degassing of about 20%). It has a number of short-lived radioactive
isotopes that occur naturally due to the decay of naturally-occuring U. One such
isotope, 210Bi, has been used to examine processes occuring in volcanic aerosols,
along with 210Po and 210Pb.[vii]
Bismuth can occurs in many
environments. Either in hydrothermal veins
deposits associated with other metals, or with quartz and cassiterite in granite
heavy metal appears globally. Iron and
Tellurium are common impurities.
As a component of the usually
mined heavy metal complex, including Acanthite
trigonal mineral is unusually associated with Erythrite, or Co3(AsO4)2·8H2O.
According to the
Bismuth data page at www.mindat.org, there are 697 world locales in the
database to date.
Australia; San Baldomero and La Paz, Bolivia; Devon,
England; Germany and South Dakota, Colorado and California, USA.[viii]
Traditionally, Bismuth was not
the major product desired mining operations. As
by-product, its use was overshadowed by the more profitable gold and silver, with which it
normally associated. A veritable foundry
paradise, however, awaited those who could find uses
for the various other metals found within these ore bodies.
Lead bears the closest periodic
relationship to Bismuth by general deposition geologically.
Copper, lead, zinc, cobalt,
nickel, tin, uranium, and arsenic were among its more common
fellow gangue-mates, until modern times.
Two major ores are: Bismite (Bi2O3)
and Bismuthinite (Bi2S3).
Native or oxidized iridescent
hopper crystals are extremely rare in nature. The
grown from 99.99% nearly pure metal.
Earth is not the only known
planetary body in our solar system with measurable amounts
of Bismuth. The weather on the planet Venus
exhibits heavy metal rain. NASAs 1989
probe data has borne out this Bismuth cycle, as this author terms it. Dr. Raymond E. Ardvison
and his fellow researchers discovered this anomaly in 1995.
Laura Schaefer, research assistant
in the Planetary Chemistry Laboratory at Washington University, St. Louis, adds that, When
looked at the chemistry, we found the best candidates were actually lead and bismuth
Who knows, perhaps our
grandchildren will use giant mining bucket scoops to collect 'Bismuth
rain' from Venus atmosphere for a slingshot trip back to Earth!
|Lab-grown Bismuth Crystal by Ken Keraiff
Photo by Ken Casey ©2005
As uses for
Bismuth determine its worth, Bismuth geology underlies the location of its mines. Discovered in economic quantities on six
continents, todays active mining brings us affordable
material for all of industrys projects.
Modern supplies derive from
Peru, Mexico, China, United States, Bolivia, Canada, and
Australia. As a metal, a secondary scrap
recycling market thrives around the world, so less is
wasted. Two such examples I found are: Recyclers World and www.leadtin.com.
Most mines were not
historically, primarily Bismuth-oriented until other precious, or more
profitable, metals are mined out. Modern
smelting techniques can bring all metals out for
consumption, so Bismuth has become a moneymaker. One
primary Bismuth mine at Tasna,
Bolivia, shut down in 1984, due to playing out of the deposit.[x]
In Bolivia, Corriente
Resources Inc. of Vancouver owns the former primary bismuth mine at
Tasna. Bolivia has not reported bismuth
production since 1990. With the growing
increased bismuth consumption through new uses, the mine, which shut in 1984, has been
reassessed. Sufficient reserves have been established for a mine life of about 11 years at
operating rate of 300 t/d. The grade was
reported in early 1996 as 1.1% bismuth, 1.05% copper,
0.38% tungsten trioxide, 0.33 g/t gold, and 22.8 g/t silver. The tin reserves are not
initial mining plans.[xi]
Incorporateds Omaha, Nebraska plant is the sole domestic primary producer.[xii]
Moina, Tasmania, Australia has a tin-tungsten-bismuth mine.[xiii]
Mining safety is all important,
especially in the U. S. Our government
the National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health has information on all related topics.
Though there are a few producers of
Bismuth, Sidech, S. A. of Belgium is the
supplier of bismuth metal. It produces about
2,000 tons annually. The current market price
the commodity is about $4.45/pound.
interestingly for a heavy metal, bismuth is scientifically recognized as one of the safest
element[s]. It is also non-carcinogenic. Accordingly, a growing number of industrial
depend upon it to alleviate specific toxicity or environmental problems.
150 years Bi compounds have been shooting all sort of stomach aliments from minor
aches to ulcers. Modern medical science has proven it to be the most effective ingredient
eradiction of helicobacter pylori, the bacteria responsible for causing peptic ulcers.
concerns and lead-in-air laws have made non-toxic bismuth a useful replacement
for lead in a growing number of applications such as free-lead cutting steel and aluminium
brass, ceramics and crystal glass, hunting cartdridges, yellow pigments, gold assaying,
balls, lubricants, zinc galvanization etc.[xiv]
Due to its remarkable
properties, Bismuth can both uniquely act as a constituent in useful
chemical formulae, and substitute for other elements in form and function, as well, like
The short list covers:
Lead in Shotgun shells as to not contaminate groundwater
& Alloys (like SeBiLOY®)
for Lead in fishing sinkers
detection and extinguishing systems
More exotic uses are: rocket
fuel, super- and semiconductors, ceramic glazes, a modern
alchemists transmutant into gold (Laurence Livermore Labs, 1980). The latter is a feat to which
alchemist Sir Isaac Newton would have given great laud!
Some ancient cultures used
bismuth powders. A variety of metallic
preparations have been
used by the ladies of different countries for this purpose, particularly the oxyds of
antimony. Among the Medes it was not confined to the fair sex; at least Xenophon, in his
Cyropædia, describes Astyages as having his eyes painted. The custom still prevails in
As cited in the poem The
Veils; Or the Triumph of Constancy by British author Eleanor
Anne Porden Franklin (1795-1825), the reference on page of Carinthias
ores alludes to the
Though this example is from literature, the written art can usually be
Victorians could purchase
over-the-counter powders of bismuth about 100 plus years ago for
aid in digestion, much like todays products: Kaopectate
and Pepto-Bismol. Both of these
modern remedies contain Bismuth salicyclate, deemed safe to take by our national
Food & Drug Administration (FDA).
return your bottle to the medicine cabinet, you could learn that the new brass
faucet on your bathroom sink could be made from a Bismuth Alloy (SeBiLOY®). The stalwart
Copper Development Association,
Inc. (CDA) brings you this good news, as you will no longer
have any toxic Lead in your brass.
Volvik manufacturers their patented
Bismuth golf balls with a tri-metal core.
dual core consists of a power core for maximum distance and a bismuth mixed soft control
for feel and spin and a soft touch cover provide the most satisfying distance and feeling.[xvi]
Environmental concerns have spurred on the replacement of Bismuth for Lead in shotgun
pellets and fishing sinkers, as Bismuth is deemed today as generally non-toxic. Future science
will tell; though, the act to reduce Lead-pollution is a step in right direction for
It is the popular belief among scientists.
Fuel and More
Both NASA and Russias
Central Scientific Institute of Machine Building (TsNIIMash) are
researching Bismuth as a propellant in rockets to drive spacecraft, and more. The Jet Propulsion
Laboratory (JPL) scientists are also devising better materials and equipment for
spacecraft sensors. Bismuth Titanate is being
experimented with in piezoelectric actuators and sensors to withstand
the Venusian atmosphere. And Bismanol (BiMn)
can act in supermaget capacity.
Science Experiments (Home Use)
Many of us have heard used the
colloquial expression, Kids, dont try this at home. This is
with good reason. I will mention a couple to
try; but, please, do so with the utmost safety, and
kids, do so with adult supervision. Be it a
home, school, or work lab, use care and the latest
safety equipment, such as safety goggles.
With that caution mentioned, our plane will be landing soon, so put your tray tables in
Ken Keraiff has placed online his homemade experiment
for magnetic levitation. Perhaps he
will be kind enough to give a demonstartion for us. He also links to another
experiment of prolific
purveyor of home science, Mr. Field.
Simon Quellen Field has
published on his scitoys website some bismuth magnetism
experiments. These can be performed with
some household items, and some bismuth metal.
There are probably a great many
other trials with Bismuth published. I hope
these inspire you
to learn more.
If you want to grow, say, Bismuth germanium oxide crystals employing the Czochralski
technique, you could purchase a Crystalmaster Group
7000 crystal grower from a company called Thermal Technology, Inc.
If you are interested in some of the recent U. S. Patent Office inventions, check out United States Patent #5357898. The abstract describes both the process and the
apparatus required to make improved Bi-substituted garnet single crystals suitable
for magneto-optical devices
, and such, which may
or may not be used with lasers.
For this article, we will
concentrate on the proliferation of astounding 99.99% pure Bismuth
metal hopper crystals. Collectors in both thumbnail and tabletop sizes
enjoy this favored
form. Ken Keraiff enjoys holding his periodic
Guess the Weight Contest to
enjoyment of sharing the realm of Bismuth with folks all over.
|Golden Bismuth Crystal
||Tower Bismuth Crystal
||Radiating Bismuth Crystals
|Photos by and
courtesy of Ken Keraiff, Krystals Unlimited ©2005
There is a science and an art to creating one's own crystals. The more you know,
But, sometimes, happy accidents occur, and you make novel discoveries!
One aficionado, Theodore Gray, writes on this metals aspects as relates to crystal
size outcomes: Hopper crystals develop because their outer edges grow more quickly
Relatively larger crystals
may be obtained by slowing the cooling process during formation.
You may wish to learn other features of the process by visiting Theodore Grays
None of Your Bismuth: The Effects of Thermal Conductivity on Bismuth Crystal size.
Udo J. A. Behner of Germany
grows and sells superb Bismuth crystals. He
offers many facts
about this Element 83, sells other types of crystal-growing kits, and offers recipes for
crystals and more. He will ship to the
U. S. and Australia from Europe. You may
reach him at: www.crystalgrowing.com.
If you would like a great North American source, Ken Keraiff of Krystals Unlimited in the province of British
Columbia offers his own labgrown Bismuth gems of astoundingly different crystal habits and
colorations. Ken will easily ship to the U.
S. He has supplied our club with a specimen
from which our members and guests might learn.
Bismuth crystal, lab-grown by Ken Keraiff)
The geosphere of planet Earth is
not the only environment in which Bismuth crystals may be
artificially grown. The microgravity of space
encapsulated within the near Earth orbiting Space
Shuttles mission STS-87 (1997), used the MEPHISTO oven to study Bismuths
Tin. The joint U. S.-French study will have
produced flat-faced bismuth-tin alloy crystals for use in semiconductors.
this experiment, rods of pure bismuth and bismuth with very small additions of tin are
inserted in a furnace and will be heated and then cooled to study the formation of flat
This experiment will yield a large amount of information concerning growth rate, interface
shape and interface supercooling. Such information will be used to understand the
between the generation of imperfections and the redistribution of the chemical elements in
crystal. Both of these things affect the quality of crystals and the performance of
devices that use them.[xviii]
To better understand the orbiting lab platform, we must know what the initials in
MEPHISTO is a French acronym that translates into English as Materials for the
Interesting Phenomena of Solidification on Earth and in Orbit. Since this was the
fourth flight of
the MEPHISTO furnace, the experiment is referred to as MEPHISTO-4.
MEPHISTO-4 was a directional solidification experiment that studied the liquid-to-solid
transformation of bismuth alloyed with tin. Directional solidification is a freezing
to the processing of the electronic materials used in integrated circuits and detectors,
silicon and germanium.[xix]
So, yes, there are cutting-edge
scientific applications being discovered even today for this not-well-known heavy metal of
we have familiarized ourselves with the background on Bismuth, we are ready to
deplane and embark on our drive to Ken's Lab. During
the trip, please take time to review your
Bismuth science. Lets go!
with Ken Keraiff of Krystals Unlimited
||You grow some marvelous crystals,
Ken. How did you choose Bismuth?
in the late 80's I used to work at Cominco, the worlds largest refinery of metals such as
lead, zinc, silver, gold and other metals. Bismuth was a by product of that process. One
of my jobs there was to work in the lab where on occasion I grew these beautiful bismuth
crystal specimens. It was then that my interest was tweaked onto growing them.
||How do you cultivate such fine
specimens? Do you employ an industrial
crystal growing apparatus, or have you invented your own setup?
them is really about melting and cooling. I use a graphite pot and a
scientific hotplate and 99.99% pure bismuth. The hotplate holds the bismuth and it sits on
top of the hotplate. I melt the bismuth then moniter the growth of the crystals
inside the pot as the bismuth cools. Once I have crystal growth in the pot,
I remove the crystals. Then the process is repeated by melting the bismuth
and starting over. My process is different then the others that grow, in
that most of the crystals that I grow are freestanding. Which means that
they have a base that the main crystal body extends upward from. This allows
for better viewing of all sides of the crystal. I have over time shortened
my overall growing time. The whole process takes about 50 minutes. The
actual growing time of the crystals themselves is quite short. Being in the
range from 30 seconds to 10 minutes.
like your tower crystals. Could
they be twins?
crystal is unique unto itself. I have literally grown thousand and
there are no 2 alike. My tower crystals are more unique in that I don't have
many of them. I started saving them a few years back and have a collection
of around 50.
||Must one use special care in handling
these heavy-metal gems?
bismuth crystals are fragile. I liken them to my Mothers crystal in her
china cabinet. They should be handled with care. When cleaning mine, all I
use is a feather duster.
||Have you ever experimented with other
types of crystals? Or, have you tried making
alloys to grow into crystals?
are the only type of crystals I grow.They are my specialty.
||Have you ever considered attempting a
Guinness Book of World Records milestone?
few years back I attempted to grow a bismuth crystal the size of a
football. Safety was my first concern in this, and once I met all my safety
criteria it was a go. For about 3 weeks I was at it from morning to night,
thinking that it would be similar to my original process, but on a much
larger scale. The pot that I usually grow my crystals in holds about 25
pounds of bismuth. My large pot holds about 175 pounds. I kept daily notes
on what was happening and it seemed like I was going to get something that I
had only dreamed about. Unfortunately I went from steps 1 through 10 and
right back to 1 again. Frustrated, I stopped my attempt.
Again in the summer of 2005 I tried again. Carefully going over my notes I
thought that I had made the necessary changes to have success. But again I
was disappointed when after a few weeks it didn't work. I am sure I will try
mention on your website that you have a client who makes jewelry from your fine crystals. Our members also concentrate on jewelry-making and
lapidary pursuits. Have you any
recommendations on how to safely work with Bismuth (for example, heat, soldering, gluing,
polishing, etc.)? Or, is your focus more on
have made a few pendants and necklaces from my crystals. The one thing
needed for sure when drilling them is a high speed drill and a very sharp
bit. As for heat, I would think it would be safe to apply some heat, but not
anything close to the melting point. Polishing is really not needed. The
best way to clean them is with a feather duster or a soft cloth. If a
crystal was to break, I have used crazy glue to glue the piece back on. Make
sure not to use to much though. Glueing them on to bases can be accomplished
with contact cement or epoxy.
I ask, Are you a teacher or scientist, in addition to being an accomplished
work in a pulp mill as a pulp grader.
||Is the pastime of growing Bismuth
crystals something a novice hobbyist could attempt at home, or is better suited for an
intermediate/advanced practitioner of science?
bismuth crystals can be achieved by the novice hobbyist. One must
remember though that when working with molten metals there are extreme
dangers of burns and explosions if it is not handled and regulated
carefully. It should also be attempted in a very well ventilated area with
all the safety equipment, such as respirator and a fire extinguisher.
offer to create a crystal on special dates for your customers by request. Is there any significance (such as metaphysical)
to this other than creating a special celebratory memento?
are metaphysical aspects to bismuth, but my main reason for special
date crystals is to have something grown on the same day as something
special like a birthday, annivesary or something special.
||My club members are impressed with
your desire to share your experiences with bismuth, and with your generosity, especially
in promoting interest through your Guess the Weight Contest. Thank you.
thought it would be an interesting way to peak the curiosity of people.
we offer a link to your sites, so that interested folks could learn more?
sure can. Krystals Unlimited
you any additional comments?
for the opportunity to showcase my bismuth crystals.
Kens newest line of crystals turn out with a very nice pastel type coloring of
greens, aquas, and pinks. They are
part of his most recent Guess the
Bismuth Jewelry by Dominic
As we have
seen, Bismuth is both a malleable metal and a gem. Its
metal can be formed into sharply cast items with a high degree of details. Workers of these white metals are called,
whitesmiths, much the same as those who wrought gold and silver are called
goldsmiths and silversmiths, respectively.
Though I know of no one who
casts or forms jewelry findings from Bismuth, I do know of two people who craft fine
jewelry from its crystalline gemform. They
are Dominic Koval and Helena of Ariels Joys and Gems at HeleFrnk@aol.com.
Mr. Koval has agreed to let us show you a pendant he created using a Bismuth gem and
carved applewood. (Left)
crystal grower (Germany): Udo J. A.
Behner at http://www.crystalgrowing.com/index_e.htm
Until Next Time
We hope you have enjoyed Ken
Keraiff's phenomenal lab-grown Bismuth crystals, and Dominic
Koval's handcrafted Bismuth gem jewelry. Perhaps you may wish to try growing your
or even to attempt making a piece of wearable art for yourself, to sell, or as a gift!
Until then, stay safe, and happy collecting.
Ken Kariaff, Krystals
Unlimited (Interview, Photos, Crystal Sample)
I would like to gratefully acknowledge the generous
contributions of our fellow Bismuth
collectors, authors, curators, professionals, and club members who made this
work possible. Thanks.
Dominic Koval, Well
of Stars, Stow, Vermont (Bismuth Jewelry)
Stan Celestian, Earth Sciences Department, Glendale
Community College, Glendale, Arizona
All contributions to this article are covered under the copyright protection of this
and by separate and several copyright protection(s), and are to be used for the sole
enjoying this scholarly article. They are used gratefully with express written
permission of the
authors, save for generally-accepted scholarly quotes, short in nature, deemed legal to
with the appropriate citation and credit. Reproduction of this article must
be obtained by express
written permission of the author, Kenneth B. Casey, for his contributions, authoring,
graphics. Use of all other credited materials requires permission of each
Links and general contact information are included in the credits above,
and throughout this article.
The advice offered herein are only suggestions; it is the reader's charge to use the
contained herein responsibly. DMS is not responsible for misuse or
accidents caused from this
article. All opinions, theories, proofs, and views expressed within this article, and in
others on this
website, do not necessarily reflect the views of the Delaware Mineralogical Society.
of Bismuth by Ernest
Physics and Science of Thermoelectric Materials:
Beyond Bismuth Telluride (Fundamental Materials Research)
edited by M. G. Kanatzidis, T. P. Hogan, S. D. Mahanti
||About the Author: Ken is current webmaster of the Delaware
Mineralogical Society. He has a diploma in
Jewelry Repair, Fabrication & Stonesetting from the Bowman Technical School,
Lancaster, PA, and worked as jeweler. He has
also studied geology at the University of Delaware. And,
he is currently a member of the Delaware Mineralogical Society and the Franklin-Ogdensburg
Mineralogical Society. E-mail: email@example.com.
Isaac Asimov. Names, Names,
Names. Andrés Rojas Homepage:
Originally in Astounding Science Fiction, Dec. 1956.
5 Oct 1997. 30 Oct 2005
University of California, Chemistry
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Gymnázium & SPgs Jeronýmova, Czechoslovakia.
bi2.htm. 29 Oct 2005
Wikipedia. Bismuth. 28
Oct 2005. 30 Oct 2005
Quibs. Science: Alloys.
4 Dec 2000. 30 Oct 2005
Ken Rubin. Reply to
Ask-An-Earth-Scientist: Bismuth and Geology. 30 Oct 2005
Amethyst Galleries, Inc. The
Mineral Bismuth. 1996. 1 Nov 2005
Carolyn Jones Otten.
Heavy Metal Snowstorms Blanket Venus. RedNOVA News.
11 Feb 2004. 1 Nov 2005
Bismuth. Specialty Nonferrous Metals, 55.7.
Canadian Minerals Yearbook 1995. 29 Oct 2005
Department of Mines Tasmania. Geological
Survey Explanatory Report: Sheffield,
Sheet 37. 1979. Wilmot Online Access Centre. 1 Nov 2005
Sidech, S. A. about bismuth. 1 Nov 2005
Ophelia Yim (creator of electronic
text). I.D. No. FranEVeils. British Women Romantic
Poets Project. Shields Library, University of California (Davis). Original author: Eleanor
Anne Porden Franklin. The Veils; Or the Triumph of Constancy. 1998. 1 Nov 2005
Volvik, Inc. Bismuth: Perfect
Combination of High Performance and Technology. 2004.
Theodore Gray. Its None
of Your Bismuth: The Effects of Thermal Conductivity on
Bismuth Crystal Size. 1 Nov 2005
Mary Ann Peto. National Aeronautics
and Space Administration (NASA). NASA News.
Press Release 94-16: NASA Research Center Microgravity Experiments Prime Customer
of STS-62 Shuttle Mission. 1 Nov 2005
Henry C. de Groh, III. National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). Crystal
Growth Using MEPHISTO. Jun 1999. 1 Nov 2005