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                           Mineral of the Month--February

                  Petrified Wood

                                       Silicon Dioxide (Predominately)

                              SiO2

                   Petrified Wood, Part I

               By Ken Casey

Preface    

     In the next two episodes of our Mineral-of-the-Month we will be visiting Petrified Wood.  Not just
on the surface, but deep within this ancient wood’s cells.  Part I will cover the chemistry and science
of what makes it, i.e., the process of petrification, it’s geology, and what gives it its array of colors. 
We will see some lapidary examples, as well.  And, we will begin nearest our clubhouse in the United
States to trek our petrified forests.

     In part II, we will go into paleobotany, more lapidary uses, lore and metaphysical applications, and
travel internationally, to see what the rest of the world proudly offers as paleo-beauty from their homes,
as well.

     So, put on your hardhat and safety sunglasses.  We’re off to explore the many preserves of ancient
flora. Let’s go!

    

Introduction

     Good morning!  I hope you are all ready for our excursion into sunny petwood country.  As your guide,
I will suggest places for us to collect, or in the case of special parks and preserves, to just soak in the
multi-hued beauty of stony logs and trunks, to be admired where they fell a long time ago.

     As there are several public and private locations for us to visit on our itinerary, we’ll have to hurry, so
everyone on the club bus, please.  All aboard!

     We’ll travel south from Delaware, then venture across the country westward, until we reach California. 
We can spend the next virtual month scouring the southwest for fossilized plant specimens, while working
on our suntans.  Next month, we’ll endeavor to cross the ocean to sunny Australia, then onto Asia and
other spots on the globe.

IMGP3100.JPG (2842 bytes) Pentoxylon_small.jpg (2151 bytes) aussiejohn.jpg (9566 bytes)
Delaware Petrified Wood
Photo by Ken Casey 2005
Pentoxylon (Jurrasic), Australia
Photo courtesy of
Dr. Stephen Ervin
Australian "aussie john"
Photo by and courtesy of
Jackie Lapin, SpheresToYou.com  2006

    We’ll need a primer on petrified wood.  So, as the wheels on the bus roll us southward, let’s study up
on our current favorite.  We’ll begin with science.

What’s In a Name?

     The word “petrified” comes from the Greek “petra”, meaning rock.  So, wood that has transformed into
rock is “petrified wood”.

 

What is petrified wood?

     By general definition, petrified wood is tree material that has undergone mineralization.  This could
loosely apply to man-made pressure-treated lumber or naturally preserved ancient kauri wood from New
Zealand.  More on that later.

     For our intensive purpose here, we intend to visit nature’s fully fossilized trees.

     Petrified wood is a fossil created by the replacement of a tree’s plant cell shapes with minerals,
such as quartz, calcite, or pyrite.  A stone cast is left after the lignin and cellulose decay.  It’s telltale
colorful grain patterns and concentric rings are fostered by staining minerals, such as iron, manganese,
or copper. 
Pure silica exhibits a bluish-white hue.

     The quartz variety predominates the world’s paleoforests.  On the Moh’s scale of hardness it rates
a 7, equal to quartz.  It is tough, yet brittle, breaking as does cryptocrystalline quartz.  Amazingly, it
can weigh many times that of a piece of similarly sized wood.[i]

 

Color Chart:
az_petrified_wood.jpg (30371 bytes) Petrified Wood comes in all colors of
the rainbow.  The following minerals
give the wood it's characteristic palatte:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrified_wood

(Left) Closeup of Petrified Wood from the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona
Photo courtesy of Christy Marx, Professional Photographer 
1997-2006

     There are three main steps towards permineralization of living plant matter: (1.) encapsulation,
or removal from an environment that causes decomposition, (2.) introduction of sufficient quantity
of a mineral-laden solution to bring about chemical-biochemical replacement of cell structure, and
(3.) time.

     At what point during the petrification process (or preservation process) do we determine that
wood is in fact “petrified wood”?  Is a partially or fully done process sufficient for our definition?  Can
it be man-made, or is nature the sole producer?  Or, is age a factor?

     There is a debate over whether certain, recently recovered wood from the ground has actually
undergone the process of petrification.  There are three examples that come to mind.  They are:
New Zealand kauri wood, century-old sunken logs, and flood-covered landscape living tree remnants.

200px-Kauri_Te_Matua_Ngahere.jpg (43466 bytes)

     The first is the southern hemisphere’s millenias old kauri wood.  Recently recovered or “mined” from the peat bog-laden earth, ancient kauri (Agathis australis) is estimated by radio-carbon dating to have been “preserved” in the ground for around 50,000 years.  The only officially-licensed New Zealand “mining” company explains that harvesting is state-monitored, so it is rare and can be expensive.[iii]   

     Partial mineralization has occurred, thus giving this workable wood some superior degree of hardness and a cognac-colored sheen that underscores a beginning to fossilization.  Though not fully petrified, natural longer-scale preservation has increased its beauty and value.  Buried under a peat swamp, after having lived for about 2,000 years, each tree has rested, untouched since the last Ice Age. We can compare the old wood to modern trees, as kauri still graces the New Zealand landscape.

     One can both visit the living members at the Northland Forest Park, and later procure online some ancient lumber from a hardwood vendor, Ancientwood, Ltd. of La Pointe, Wisconsin, for use and study.  If you are keen on paleobotany, this job is for you.  Some folks enjoy working it as wood.

(Left): Agathis australis (Kauri tree) from New Zealand, called 'Te Matua Ngahere' after the Maori 'Father of the Forest' (wikipedia)

    The second is the spoils of latent logjams.  For about 100 years, some cut logs sent downriver
from antique logging transportation operations have sunk to river or lake bottoms, only to have their
harvesting deferred to recent times.  These water-logged bonuses are fully useable in modern
carpentry and woodworking projects.  Whether some mineralization has occurred to harden the
lumber is at issue.

az_petrified_forest.jpg (26682 bytes)      The third is flood-preserved stands of trees.  One recent example are the remains of ancient forests that can be seen poking their highest limbs above the lower water levels of Lake Powell in the awesome Glen Canyon National Recreation Area.  These plants have been submerged by man-made projects for about 40 years.  One could study these.

     Naturally-occurring ancient examples are coastline forests, since sea-levels have risen since times BCE.  An inland example is the shifting of water levels in Yosemite National Park.  Dead stumps stand in testament to volcanic and tectonic processes, perhaps preserved by dissolved volcanic gases or related mineral-bearing waters.

(Left): Looking downslope of an erosion channel at the Petrified Forest National Park
Photo by and courtesy of Christy Marx  2006

     As an historic supervolcano in the west spewed an ash cloud into the believed prevailing
paleowinds, deposits reached as far east as Nebraska.   I wonder if the process is occurring right
now under the fallen forest on the slopes of the currently active Mt. St. Helen’s volcano at the
Mt. St. Helen’s National Monument in Washington state.

 

Man-made Analogs

Pressure-treated Lumber

ptpine.jpg (20758 bytes)      Today’s pressure-treated pine wood is just that, lumber infused with chemicals, like chromated
copper arsenic (CCA), under intense pressure.  These minerals act to preserve the wood, thus making it resistant to insect infestation and decay from ground and water contact.  Some lumber manufacturers guarantee their product for up to forty years! 

     Last year, during our club’s Junior Booth Labeling Party in preparation for our March 2005 Show, I found a small piece of P-T pine.  It was used as a base to mount a mineral specimen, I believe.  Determined to label it, I suggested we sell it as “petrified wood”, as it was chemically-preserved wood.   Laughing, we put it back in the box, but didn’t offer it for sale.

(Left): Photo courtesy of FLW Wood   2006

     Here is an example of a middleground two-fold process: man-made, then naturally lithified.  A
story reported in Australia’s outback gives proof that planted timber fenceposts have been partially
fossilized in recent history, thus giving credence to a faster than previously believed permineralization
process occurring in nature.  The 1918 flood laid sediment and water conducive towards creating
fossilizing conditions.[iv]

     Experimental chemistry has brought petrification to the forefront of the news.  A man-made
process has brought about a ceramic compound that mimics petrified wood. It is amazing that
with a nearby petrified forest, that scientists in Washington state are creating artificial petrified
wood.  Why, do you ask?

     Benefits include filtering pollutants, acting as catalysts, and sponging up contamination.

     The process involves hardening a softwood, such as pine or poplar, bathing it in acid, then
soaking it in silica solution for days.  After air-drying, it is cooked in an argon-filled furnace to
1,400 degrees Celsius, Many experimental and industrial crystals are grown in an argon
atmosphere.   The replicated petwood consists of a new silicon carbide.[v]

     In the article “Instant Petrified Wood Yields Super Ceramics”, Materials scientists at the
Department of Energy's Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a chemical
process that adds a promising new dimension to the search for advanced catalyst technologies,
as well as to cutting tools, abrasives and coatings.”

     These laboratory versions of petrified wood borrow the best aspects of metal and carbon to
create a superstrong material that can take temperatures up to 1,400 degrees Celsius.  They
create it in days, instead of millions of years
.

     The idea it to build ceramics on “wood templates”.  Silicon, titanium, and argon are used. 
The useable end products are silicon carbide (SiC) and titanium carbide (TiC).[vi]

     The amazing porosity of the material lends itself to use as a catalyst or a filter.  This wood
flours can be infused with metals, creating better cutting tools.  And, all this from a renewable
resource!  What will they think of next?

     So, a modified type of truly petrified wood can be of use beyond its outward structure
and beauty.

 

Another application touts a petrifying effect:

     Both a Popular Science, October 1992 article, and U. S. Patent File #4,612,050, outline an
invention owned by Mr. Hamilton Hicks of Greenwich, Connecticut, which explain a process whereby
fresh wood can be
altered by chemical solutions in the lab to create an analogous petrified wood.[vii]

     His Sodium silicate composition patent file abstract reads: “A mineralized sodium silicate
solution for the application to wood has a composition causing it to penetrate the wood and jell
within the wood so as to give the wood the non-burning characteristics of petrified wood.”[viii]

     Australian scientists of Nanotec Pty. Ltd. have devised a newly marketed product which they
tout repels water and UV rays.  Their “Nanoseal Wood” may be defined as man-made petrified,
but actually
may serve as building material.

     It is a “water based, ultra hydrophobic, colloidal solution with self assembling properties to
form the functional surface structure.
  The repellent effect is done by a combination of molecular
structural surface changes and added on hydrophobic properties.”[ix]

     The topically applied liquid seals out air and moisture, thus halting decay, much like the
encapsulated environment in which petrified wood forms.  One must ask how long will it last,
and are we creating petrified wood over time
?

     As the vast Triassic paleoforest that spanned Texas to Utah consisted of ancient conifers, some comparison can be logically made.  Technology has almost defeated the process of aerobic decay.  Even decades old loblolly pine carpentered building members encased in plaster harden with age.

     The afore-mentioned lab-created woods seem to mimic nature’s processed pieces to a defining degree of form.  So, are these cultured products really comparable to this month’s favorite mineral?

(Right): A 15" round cross-section of Utah petwood
Photo by and courtesy of sticks-in-stones.com 2006

utah1.jpg (126497 bytes)

     Let’s review by reading a passage written about natural petrification, and see how it compares.

     Sometimes the original cellular structure is obliterated and what remains is simply a cast
of the original log; other times, growth rings, bark, knots, and even cellular structure is
preserved with remarkable fidelity. This later, more detailed preservation is possible because
silica and other inorganic molecules are much smaller than organic molecules; rather than
"molecule for molecule" replacement, the organic molecules are actually coated and surrounded
with silica. Small amounts of impurities add color to the fossilized wood: yellow, brown and red
indicate iron; black and purple take their hue from carbon or manganese.
[x]

     Doesn’t this describe the major technical features of our chemists’ processes above?

     So, what constitutes laboratory petrification as a similar, chemical replacement process to
nature, can thus retain our definition of petrified woo
d.

     In past articles, we have mentioned substitutes for nature’s bounty, especially when
quantities are scarce.  For example, turquoise, diamond, and opal have all been man-made.  
Though having uses beyond the gemstone, why should petrified wood be treated any differently? 

 

Geology

     As stated above, similar conditions around the globe create the environment to petrify wood. 
It seems that all three main geologic processes contribute to the creation of our preserved
paleoforests.   Volcanic lava, ejecta, and silicieous ash (igneous), soil and mud deposition
(sedimentary), and mineral-laden groundwater replacement casting (metamorphic), work in
sequence to bring about our painted landscapes of today.

     Experts differ as to the timeframe of formation.  Some believe that millions of years were
required; whereas, others cite instances of objects, such as modern fenceposts being
fossilized after floods.   Most submit that eons have passed before natural examples were
completely mineralized.

   One of the most studied areas is the Petrified Forest National Park in Arizona.  Stratigraphers in one paper state that, two layers of the Upper Triassic Chinle Group contain the bulk of petwood in the park.  Also, the Sonsela Member of the Petrified Forest Formation holds the more brightly colored logs for which the park is known.

     These scientists, Andrew B. Heckert and Spencer G. Lucas, conclude their age-dating as [a]vailable biochronological evidence, including tetrapods, megafossil plants, pollen, and calcareous microfossils, indicates that both the Sonsela Member and the Black Forest Bed are of early- to mid-Norian (220-215 Ma) age.[xi]

     Though scientists and theologians have disagreed over the age and specific event(s) that produced the petrified forests of the world, many seem to agree on the composition of the final product.  Our goal is to focus upon the petrification process that occurred after the trees were buried, and upon the colorful wonders that we see today.

(Right): Fluvial erosion at the Petrified Forest National Park.  Photo by and courtesy of Scott W. Parker 2003

petrified_forest_np.jpg (94215 bytes)

     The references this author makes to prehistory are based both upon popular scientific
belief and upon the premise that perhaps some petrified wood formed before man.  Even many
of the world’s cultural creation scenarios agree that plants existed before mankind; therefore,
it could be possible that some petrified wood could have formed before, as well.

Gingko-Blaetter.jpg (24924 bytes)      Let’s look at a couple of examples.  One wood that is still known today, living in some of earth’s forests, is Gingko.  The Gingko Petrified Forest State Park located on the Columbia River in Washington State hosts Miocene (5.3 to 23.8 mya) Ginkgos (Gingko biloba).[xii]

(Left): Gingko biloba leaves
Photo courtesy of Reinhard Kraasch

     Another is the Mississippi Petrified Forest boasts Eocene Epoch (Tertiary) 36 million
year old wood.  These primeval remnants of perhaps a bald cypress forest (a tree known
today) lay testament to the passage of time
.  Palmwood occurs around Louisiana.

Palmoxylon.jpg (24660 bytes) palm40.jpg (8988 bytes)
Palmoxylon, Louisiana
Photo courtesy of Dr. Stephen Ervin
2.5" Diameter Palmwood Sphere, Lousiana/Texas
Photo by and courtesy of SpheresToYou.com   2006

The Geologic Time Scale (USGS)

     Many other species lie extinct, with evidence of their existence only culled from the
fossil record.  This month, we will leave them lie, in favor of space for more descriptive
pictures.  I will introduce some of Linnean scientific names, so that they will appear more
familiar to you in our next excursion.  Next month, we’ll uncover more about paleobotany
and plant taxonomy.

Other_Odessa_Log.jpg (250363 bytes) transpalm.jpg (10379 bytes)
Petrifed wood in the field, Odessa, Delaware
Photo by and courtesy of Gene Hartstein 2006
2.5" Diameter Palmwood Sphere, Lousiana/Texas
Photo by and courtesy of SpheresToYou.com   20

     Next, let’s move ourselves out west. Put on your sunglasses and sunscreen; we'll need them.

     In many western states, falling volcanic ash covered living trees in thick sedimentary
layers.  Over time, iron- and silica-laden groundwater seeped into wood cells, thus causing
the mineral(s) to replace cell walls.  This gives us the brightly colored quartz logs we see
today.  Perhaps the heat of lavaflows hastened the process in some closer to the volcanic
cone.

     In the Petrified Forest National Park, geologic uplifting of the Colorado plateau,
sedimentary erosion, and the surficial freeze-thaw cycle produces the fractured stone logs,
as pictured here.[xiii]

making_of_petrif_forest.jpg (15162 bytes) pfnp1.jpg (18187 bytes)
A colorful landscape of fallen petrified logs inspires the artist.
A lone log draws our attention from the buttes on the horizon.
Scott W. Parker's Petrified Forest National Park Project  2006

     Silicification is the main process forming petrified wood, though others exist.  For example,
coalification, calcification, and pyritization, happen, too.  So, how do these other processes
compare to
silicification?

     Coalification and bogs predominated the eastern climate, like in the massive coal areas
of Pennsylvania and Ohio, so fewer petwood areas were created for us to see now. Some
form seams, other more acidic conditions can produce “coal balls”.   As erosion and uplifting
are key factors in releasing or exposing the layers in which lithified logs loom, our eastern
paleoclimate
brought less to the surface for us to dig.

     The exceptions are the present mountainous areas in the east, such as the Appalachian
Range.  It’s orogeny pushed rock containing our favored fossil to collectable depths. 

  (See the list of states just below)

     When logs are calcified, the resultant stones are white.  Upon exposure to the sun’s
UV rays over time,
they turn to a dark brown/black.[xiv]

     Opalization is similar to silicification, in that quartz is the major constituent.  The addition
of some water in the quartz matrix gives rise to the multi-hued effect.

     Pyrite and marcasite (iron sulfides) can replace wood cells, but essentially leave a cast
of the basic wood form.  The environment for change can be clay burial or an introduction
of seawater.

Locations

     According the the U. S. National Park Service, petrified wood is found in all 50 states,
and in many countries.[xv]

     One of my favorite online mineral databases, mindat.org, has listed 352 locales around
the globe.  Jolyon Ralph has tallied these U. S. states as documented locales: AL, AZ, AR,
CA, CO, CT, FL, GA, ID, IL, IA, KY, LA, MD, MS, MO, NE, NV, NM, NC, ND, OH, OK, OR,
PA, SC, TN, TX, UT, VA, WA, WV, WY.[xvi]  That’s 33 states!

     Most petrified forests in the U. S. can be found in the western part of the country.  The
most eastern is in Mississippi.  So, the best collecting opportunities abound out west.  Let’s
visit some of them!

bfsu6.jpg (85776 bytes) tmlm0001c.jpg (10938 bytes) bbf1.jpg (80715 bytes)
Blue Forest Wyoming
Photo courtesy of sticks-in-stones.com
A 1,247 lb. blue log from Indonesia
Photo courtesy of Larry Hauser
Blue Forest, Wyoming
Photo courtesy of sticks-in-stones.com

     United States law prohibits collection of fossil, rock, and mineral materials from National
Parks and Monuments, unless specifically permitted.  Each state, county, town, or area has
their own rules pertaining to their public spaces, as well.  It’s always best to study a guidebook,
a reliable websource, and inquire locally.

     We can access these online museums and sites on our laptops and PDAs in between
stops as we roll down the road:

Museums (Actual & Online)


Mineral and Lapidary Museum of Henderson County, Hendersonville, North Carolina
The Petrified Wood Gallery, Ogalalla, Nebraska
Sierra College Natural History Museum, Rocklin, California
Yale Peabody Museum Exhibition: “Petrified Wood: Rainbows in Stone”, Boston, Massachussetts
Nearartica’s Links to Natural History Museums by State and Province (U. S. & Canada)
Smithsonian National Museum of Natural History, “Geologic Time: The Story of a Changing Earth”
The Petrified Forest, Calistoga, California

     We will visit just a few of the various and sundry places.   You’ll have to make side trips
on your own, as we have only four short weeks this month to explore, before we are ready to
travel to other continents.  (Yes, even to Antarctica!)  Well, here they are:

Arizona

     Home to our featured locale, the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, boasts some of the
more prevalently displayed petrified paleoforest landscapes on earth!  Look below.  Could these
two photographs taken by two different photographers at two different times be of the same logs?

PetrifiedForestNationalParkArizona2.jpg (188352 bytes) pet_for2.jpg (20514 bytes)
Fractured log in the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona
Photo by and courtesy of Dr. Stephen Ervin  2006
Fractured log in the Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona
Photo by and courtesy of Scott W. Parker 2003

     Much of the area was set aside by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906 as a National
Monument.  In 1962, it became a National Park.[xvii]

     Today, it is still tradition for any seated U. S. President to declare a National Park to
conserve important lands and landmarks for the future
By act of the State Legislature,
Araucarioxylon arizonicum
is a fossil conifer that is the state fossil of Arizona.”[xviii]

Petrified_Wood_6.jpg (11375 bytes)

Petrified_Wood_7.jpg (12867 bytes)
Araucaria_Arizona.jpg (55123 bytes) Specimens of Araucaria arizonicum

(Far Left): Log in situ at the
Petrified Forest National Park, AZ
Photos by and courtesy of
Chris and Candida Provencher
2006

(Left): Colorful slab from Arizona
Photo by and courtesy of
Gene Hartstein
2006

     Together, these proclaimed symbols account for an historical place of grand note for all
of us to visit and enjoy.  With an unspoiled landscape, our roving eye might have us envision
a past, living environment.  Tall trees swaying, and earth-shaking creatures walking out of
past times, might spur us to move quickly, to avoid being trampled by these--
dinosaurs! 
At any time, we can open our minds eyes to the
possibility, or return to our current beauteous
desolation.  With this exercise, we have developed our “paleo-view”, to help us understand
more about our world.

     Here, our “paleo-viewpoint” shows us that, “In the Triassic period, this species of tree
flourished in what is now known as the Black Forest, part of the 37,851 ha (93,492-acre)
Petrified Forest National Park in eastern Arizona. Prehistoric Arizona was a flat stretch of
tropical turf in the northwest corner of a supercontinent known to modern geologists as
Pangaea.”[xix]

     "Many of the fossilized logs are from a tree called Araucarioxylon arizonicum. Two
others, Woodworthia and Schilderia, occur in small quantities in the northern part of the
park. All three are now extinct.”[xx]
"

Schildera.jpg (26942 bytes) mad19.jpg (52157 bytes)
Schilderia from Arizona
Photo by and courtesy of Dr. Stephen Ervin  2006
Woodworthia from Madagascar
(Though not from Arizona, it does represent the species)
Photo by and courtesy of
sticks-in-stones.com   2006

     The park has seen man venture across its vastness over millennia, since the end of the
dinos.  From the Anasazi, Mogollon, and Sinagua peoples up to 10,000 years ago, to the
sixteenth-century Spa
niards, up to modern times, many explorers and natives alike have
walked the park.[xxi]

     Some Native American oral history recounts the role that petrified wood played in the
grand scheme.  (We will visit these stories in our next installment, so stay tuned.)

     Now, with a brief history and new perspective to our lovely land, let’s feast our eyes on
it’s wonders!  Look out the windows, this is what you will see.  We’ll disembark, so everyone
take a bag lunch as you leave the bus.

Petrified_Wood_4.jpg (9983 bytes) Petrified_Wood_3.jpg (9062 bytes) pfnp2.jpg (13955 bytes)
Petrified_Wood_1.jpg (10557 bytes) Petrified_Wood_2.jpg (10638 bytes)
Petrified Forest National Park
Photos by and courtesy of Chris and Candida Provencher 2006
Petrified Forest National Park
Photo by and courtesy of Scott W. Parker 2003

     If you like, we can employ any of these Touring Websites about the Petrified Forest
National Park:

Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona
White Mountains Online
Holbrook, Arizona, city of the Petrified Forest
Park Vision
DesertUSA

petforestmovie.jpg (64712 bytes)      Another way to virtually tour the park is by obtaining a copy of the 1936 Warner Brothers ganster movie “The Petrified Forest”, starring Leslie Howard, Bette Davis, and Humphrey Bogart.  It might be interesting to visit the shooting locations in the park afterwards, to see if all the logs are all still in the same place!  As collecting is a ‘no-no’, they should all still be.

     Collecting rules in the park differ from outside its boundaries. On other public or private land, generally permission is required to collect.  “The wood may be collected over a large area of east-central Arizona, but outside of the National Park, most of the best sites are privately owned. Petrified wood may be also found in Utah, in various locations around the Escalante River, and in the Coyote Buttes region near the Paria River. Sometimes the wood is much less colourful - for example, the specimens that occur in the Bisti Badlands in New Mexico - but just as interesting.[xxii]

    

California

csu1.jpg (64517 bytes)      Today’s giant Sequoias (or redwoods) can still be witnessed up close at various spots.  Two are: Sequoia & Kings Canyon National Parks.  Their fossil counterparts can be visited, as well.  The Tertiary in California left magnificent examples.  We can see our petwood at the The Petrified Forest, Calistoga, California. If you would like to view an antique slide from the Professor Jesse Earl Hyde collection from Case Western Reserve University, here is a good one to try:

Petrified forest in acid Tuff. Sequoia close to or identical with living S. sempervirens. Calistoga, 80 miles north of San Francisco.[xxiii]

(Left:) Petrified sequoia, though not from California, this specimen from Calamity Butte, Oregon is similar in type.

Photo by and courtesy of sticks-in-stones.com 2006

Florida

     As Florida has spent much of geologic history underwater, marine fossils are par for the
collecting course.  However, petrified wood may still be found in the state.  And, the
renowned
Thomas Farm Fossil Preserve has uncovered various species of extinct vertebrates
, as well. 

     For the kids, Dinosaur World can be a relaxing respite from fossil hunting.  With activities
such
as a kid's pretend fossil dig and a gift shop carrying petrified wood, you can take a breather
from collecting, if you’ve a mind to.  Me, I’m ready to go to the next state.  Meet me at the bus
in an hour.

 

Texas & Louisiana

A European club, the Circle of Mineralogy and Paleontology of Belgium (CMPB), has
reported on their Field Trip to Bryan, Texas.  They have even photographed a house there
built of plant fossils!

palm38b.jpg (10009 bytes)

     It is also good to know that, “Petrified palmwood (Palmoxylon sp.), is the state stone of Texas and the official state fossil of Louisiana. It is from the Oligocene epoch (34 - 23 mya) and can be collected from many scattered sites in east Texas and western Louisiana.”[xxiv]

(Left): Petrified palmwood sphere, Texas/Louisiana border
Photo by and courtesy of SpheresToYou.com 2006

   

Mississippi

Mississippi Petrified Forest, near Flora, MS (Registered National Landmark)

Montana

Gallatin Petrified Forest, Montana (35-55 mya)

 

Nevada

Hanging Rock Petrified Forest Area of Black Rock Desert/High Rock Canyon (BLM),
Gerlach, Nevada (by special permit only)


Hubbard Basin, Nevada

hubhsu.jpg (91707 bytes) hubsu3.jpg (6562 bytes) hubbasin2002.jpg (11668 bytes)
All three photos above are petrified conifers from Hubbard Basin, Nevada
The two photos on the left are courtesy of sticks-in-stones.com; Photo on right courtesy of SpheresToYou.com   2006

 

North Dakota

     John Bluemle writes in his web article “North Dakota’s Petrified Wood”, that petrified
wood is so common in North Dakota that is a nuisance to farmers, yet lines many a driveway. 
Mr. Bluemle also offers some locales to see our favorite fossil:

         Northern section of Theodore Roosevelt National Park near the Jones Creek,
North Dakota (Metasequoia, dawn redwood)

         A public park with petrified wood in Lemmon, South Dakota

         Taylor and Amidon, ND (Lake Sakakawea petrified forest submerged)

         On the grounds of the capitol building, Bismarck, North Dakota[xxv]

Oregon

     Oregon boasts petrfied oak in Swartz Canyon, willow from Sweet Home, locust, elm,
and Trochodendron from McDermitt, 'Green Wood' (sycamore) from Hampton Butte, sequoia
from Calamity Butte, 'Golden oak' from Stinking Water Pass, white oak from Deschutes River
Canyon, among many others.  As a paleoforest, Oregon is rich in fossil plant history!

     You really have to see these specimens in a larger picture size to better appreciate them. 
Better yet, visit Oregon to collect, buy form a local rock shop or show, or purchase them online.

gsu0.jpg (98863 bytes) pwsu8.jpg (75775 bytes) swarzsu.jpg (80528 bytes)
'Green Wood',
Hampton Butte, Oregon
Petrified willow stand-up,
Sweet Home, Oregon
Petrified oak stand-up,
Swartz Canyon, Oregon
Photos by and courtesy of sticks-in-stones.com

 

Utah

     I can offer us two areas in this state to visit:

     Escalante Petrified Forest State Park, Escalante, Utah

     Utah’s Brushy Basin and Yellow Cat Flats lay claim to the very rare Yellow Cat Redwood. 
These Grand County Jurassic-Triassic rocks hold some beautiful reddish specimens. 
Northeast of Moab, near the Henry Mountains, the
Morrison formation holds shales,
mudstones and sandstones that play host to fossil plant treasures that have eroded from
their volcanic ash matrix.[xxvi]

Yellowcatflats.jpg (63748 bytes) HermanophytonBark.jpg (28141 bytes) washwood.jpg (11621 bytes)
'Yellowcat',
Yellow Cat Flats, Utah
Photo courtesy of Dr. Stephen Ervin
Hermanophyton bark, Utah
Photo courtesy of Dr. Stephen Ervin
3" sphere of Petrified wood, Washington
Photo by and courtesy of
SpheresToYou.com

   

Washington

oakview2.jpg (10675 bytes)

     Volcanism plies the modern Washington landscape, as it had in the geologic past.  Various lava flows have preserved layer upon layer of sunken, waterlogged trunks of cypress, oak, elm, and gingko that grew in the paleoswamps.  Water and silica from these events, combined like chocolate and peanut butter, to make a new composite material: petrified wood.  Now the state gem, we can visit it at the Gingko Petrified Forest State Park in Vantage.[xxvii]

(Left): 3" sphere of Petrified oak, Vantage,  Washington
Photo by and courtesy of SpheresToYou.com

    

Wyoming 

Eden Valley Petrified Wood, Eden area, Wyoming (Blue Forest, Big Sandy Reservoir,
Oregon Buttes)

bf02.jpg (79338 bytes) bfsu6.jpg (7048 bytes)
Botryoidal agate,
Blue Forest Wyoming
Petrified pepper tree,
Eden Valley, Wyoming
Photos by and courtesy of sticks-in-stones.com

 

Explorers

 

     Much like us today, on our “Grand Excursion into the Petrified Forests”, famous explorers
of the past have traversed these “painted grounds” to discover our quarry: Petrified Wood!

     Did Lewis & Clark venture through any petrified forests?  Yes, according the John Bluemle’s
article, ”Lewis & Clark, Geology, and North Dakota”, Lewis wrote in his April 16, 1805 journal
entry that he had found a partially coalified and petrified wood around the Sanish area.[xxviii]

     In 1853, U. S. Army Lieutenant Amiel Weeks Whipple led a survey expedition into the
southwest to chart land suitable for completion of a coast-to-coast railroad.   An excursion
with the self-same practical goal of improving mass-transit (“Find the Northwest Passage!”),
while exploring the country, Whipple lead a team, including a geologist, to map a prospective
route.  He trekked across what would be known later as the Petrified Forest National Park.

     Whipple's party crossed the path of today's Interstate 40 somewhere around Pinta and
entered what is now the Petrified Forest National Park north of the highway.  They more or
less paralleled the highway for 15-20 miles and crossed back to the south side of the highway
path near where it crosses Lithodendron Wash.  Camp 76 was probably west of Pinta in what
is today called Dead Wash before they the Park.

Here's some of what Whipple had to say:

December 2--Camp 76...Quite a forest of petrified trees was discovered to-day, prostrate
and partly buried in deposits of red marl.  They are converted into beautiful specimens of
variegated jasper.  One trunk was measured ten feet in diameter, and more than one hundred
feet in length.   Some of the stumps appear as if they had been charred by fire before being
converted to stone. The main portions of the trees have dark brown color; the smaller branches
are of a reddish hue.  Fragments are strewn over the surface for miles.”[xxix]

     Were there other famous wild west personalities and artistic observers?  No doubt.  You’ll
just have to follow our links and ask folks along the way about their stories.  I know I love stories.

 

Modern Explorers

     Including us, I was fortunate enough to contact several people, who were happy to help
with the success of this expeditious article.  They have shared with us pictures, paintings,
and sculpture.  As you’ve heard the adage, “A pictures speaks a thousand words”, you can
see the experience of petrified wood through their eyes.

Petrified_Wood_5a.jpg (719906 bytes)      One such group is the Provencher family.  Chris, Candida, and their children keep a website with photos of their family adventures.  Like many American families, they choose to visit or vacation at parks and natural landmarks.  Their trip to the Petrified Forest National Park has produced some wonderful images that they have chosen to share with us here.

(Left:) Provenchers at the PFNP
Photo courtesy of Chris & Candida Provencher

 

petrified_forest.jpg (97257 bytes)

Picture of PFNP, Artwork by Scott W. Parker 2003

     One artist, Scott W. Parker, travels to famous U. S. locations to find his muse.  He has also captured images of the PFNP in 2003 in his photography, paintings, and drawings.  He embarks on various travel projects for his studies.  His current project is a three-month survey of the Gulf of Mexico, finishing up in April 2006.

     ”Parker hopes to bring his National Parks Collection not only to galleries across the United States, but also to schools, where he believes his work can educate and most inspire.”

    

musicboxes.jpg (646699 bytes)

rounds_small.jpg (3374 bytes)     ClosedDoors_small.jpg (2250 bytes)
(Above): Petrified wood music box
(Below, left & right): Petwood rounds, petwood art

     I can’t forget the Kenfields, who, since the 1950's have brought lapidary work with petrified wood to a new height.  Their music boxes ‘just rock’ (forgive the pun).

     With a lifelong pursuit of what they call the ‘rock hobby’, the Kenfield brothers assembled a collection of petrified wood and fossils from around the world.  They have mastered the handcrafting of music boxes, made entirely of petrified wood!  The Kenfields also paint and create petwood framed art. They offer you a gallery and museum experience.  And, they support rockhound education with their Junior Rockhound Club.

     You can visit their collection at The Petrified Wood Gallery, Ogalalla, Nebraska.

    

Pharaohs_daughter2.jpg (115007 bytes)      Our sculptor, Gary Nickel, produces some fine art with our friendly fossilized timber.  He captures its essence, by complementing it with other spectacular gemstones, to reach a newer synergy for the eye.

     In addition to Petrified Ice, Mr. Nickel uses petrified wood as “core elements" in: Leo and Pisces, Angel Falling, Old Opal Eye, After the Pharaoh's Ball.

     He is making a Special Offer for Delaware Mineralogical Society Members.

(Left): "After the Pharoah's Ball", a sculpture with
petrified wood and gemstones by Gary Nickel
2006

    

az_petrified_wood.jpg (30371 bytes)      Photographer, Christy Marx, has helped us to get a close-up view of this wondrous stone.  Her adventures into the
Petrifed Forest have delivered some very
spectacular images!

     She makes its beauty transportable via her photograph prints.  As we are wont to carry out huge logs en masse from
collecting locales outside of the park, to perhaps improve our own
home or even our garden’s landscape, we realize we might only procure smaller specimens, unless we have a crane.  What a delight, though, to have one of her large prints gracing our indoor retreat!

(Left): Close-up photo or petrified wood from the
Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona by
professional photographer, Christy Marx 1997

    

rainbow273.jpg (11490 bytes)      Jackie Lapin and family at SpheresToYou.com have offered us to choose photos from their vast selection of Petrified Wood spheres to represent the hobby and appreciation of lapidary’s creation: spheres.

(Left): Arizona Rainbow Wood sphere
Photo by and courtesy of SpheresToYou.com   2006

    

grass07.jpg (146318 bytes)      Steve Speer and his family at Sticks-in-Stones Lapidary at Sticks-in-Stones.com have generously allowed us to show items from their travels in petwood.  Their stand-up displays bring out the grain facing to give us the feel of wood. 

(Left): Petrified ash, Grassy Mountain, eastern Oregon
Photo by and courtesy of sticks-in-stones.com

    

Winslow.jpg (251973 bytes)      Dr. Stephen Ervin, Professor of Zoology – Emeritus at CSU, has a goal to promote education and evolution, especially with petrified woods from around the world as a teaching tool.  He has agreed to share any and all pictures of his fine fossil collection, from which we might learn about plants and more.

(Left): Araucaria 'Green Wood' (Triassic) from Winslow, Arizona

"Such a fine site to see"

    

tmlm0003c.jpg (8355 bytes)      Larry Hauser, Steve Pezzano, Earl English of the Mineral and Lapidary Museum of Henderson County have graciously offered photos from their exhibit collections to encourage learning and enjoyment of our hobby.

(Left): Petrified wood log from Indonesia

   

Odessa_Log1.jpg (47936 bytes)      Last, but not least, our fellow club member and fossil dealer, Gene Hartstein, has traveled in his gathering of material to offer us at our upcoming March 4-5, 2006 Show.  Gene was kind enough to dig up some extra photos, especially of our club’s normal collecting area, of Delaware petrified wood.

 

(Left): Gene Hartstein stands on a local petrifed log that he collected on one of our club's fieldtrips Odessa, Delaware

     

Uses

 

     The number one use of natural petrified wood is in lapidary and craftwork.   Other uses
are as dimensional building stone, and as official state symbols.

     Shaping suitable stones with hand tools is known as “knapping”.  According to the
Jeffers Petroglyphs Historic Site, they list petrified wood as a knappable lithic.

     We have covered some man-made analogs that offer technologic breakthroughs that,
when applied, can help us to preserve our current environment from industrial pollutants. 
Since we leave nature’s product on the ground, we conserve on two levels!

     A broader use of petrified wood is as a symbol.  To promote state identity, at least six
states have officially made either their state fossil, mineral, stone, or gemstone.  They are:
Arizona, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Dakota, Texas, and Washington.[xxx]

     We have visited some of these states on our journey, so far.

 

 

Lapidary

 

     As we have seen, petrified wood comes in a variety of mineralizations, each with their own
best methods to work.  Most material available is quartz-like, and could be lapped accordingly.

     Agate, jasper, quartz, chalcedony, and opal are all mineral forms of silicon dioxide with color
impurities.   These characteristics give petwood its beauty, of course, only after nature's cast.

     Some of the carbonate and pyrite rough may or may not be suitable for lapidary work.  But
if you decide to give it a try, please be careful, as pyritized wood might spark and wear down
your sharp tools.  Possibly, it could work like the metal that it is.

Petrified_Ice_C.jpg (194803 bytes) hubsu3.jpg (110483 bytes) bignavajo.jpg (11215 bytes)
"Petrified Ice", a sculpture by Gary Nickel
Photo courtesy of
Gary Nickel
Petwood from Hubbard, Nevada
Photo courtesy of
sticks-in-stones.com
Pink Navajo Wood, Arizona
Photo courtesy of
SpheresToYou.com

     If you've never dealt with petwood, you might try a broken, scrap piece for practice.  Once
engaged, you might find th
at petrified wood will deliver hours of enjoyment, as each piece is
truly unique.

     Next month, we will see some more exotic woods from around the globe to set your sites
upon working. 
I'll even try my hand at faux petwood for fun.  Stay tuned!

petwood.gif (1714 bytes)Links for Kids  

Petrified Wood article at Wikipedia.org
Your Gemologist “Petrified Wood” for Kids!
dig’s State-by-State Guide to Archaeology and Paleontology Events for Kids, Families, and Schools

The Geologic Time Scale (USGS)

 


Endnotes


[i]  Wikipedia. “Petrified Wood”.  14 Jan 2006. 30 Jan 2006
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrified_wood>

[iii]  Teisberg, Robert. Ancientwood, Ltd. “The World’s Oldest Wood, Ancient Kauri”.
31 Jan 2006
<http://www.ancientwood.com/index.htm>

[iv]   Piggott, Roy. The Australian Lapidary Magazine, January 1970, p. 9. and ; Pearce, R. C.,
'Petrified wood', The Australian Lapidary Magazine, June 1970, p. 33.

[v]  The Associated Press. USAToday. Space & Science: “Topping Mother Nature, lab
makes petrified wood in days”. 25 Jan 2005, 9:33 AM. 30 Jan 2006
<http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/discoveries/2005-01-25-petrified_x.htm?csp=15>

[vi]  Azom.com. News: “Instant Petrified Wood Yields Super Ceramics”. 2 Jun 2005.
31 Jan 2006
<http://www.azom.com/details.asp?newsID=3292>

[vii] Computational Science in Education: National Computational Science Education
Consortium
. “How Does Wood Petrify?: ‘Instant’ Petrified Wood: Patent ‘Recipe’ for
Petrification”. 30 Jan 2006
<http://www.ncsec.org/cadre2/team2_2/Lessons/howDoesWoodPetrify.htm>

[viii]  United States Patent & Trademark Office: USPTO Full-text and Image Database:
United States Patent #4,612,050. 16 Sep 1986. 31 Jan 2006
<http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=
/netahtml/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=4,612,050.WKU.&OS=PN/4,612,050&RS=
PN/4,612,050
>

[ix]  physorg.com: Science, Technology, Physics, Space News: “Nanotechnology
Treatment Protects Wood in Australia”. Nanotechnology: 7 Feb 2005. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.physorg.com/news2954.html>

[x]  Bluemle, John P., North Dakota Geological Survey. “North Dakota Notes No. 3: North Dakota’s Petrified Wood”. 28 Sep 2005. 31 Jan 2006

<http://www.state.nd.us/ndgs/NDNotes/ndn3_h.htm>

[xi]  Heckert, Andrew B.1 and Lucas, Spencer G .2 . 1Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque and 2New Mexico Museum of Natural History and Science, Albuquerque. Stratigraphic Distribution and Age of Petrified Wood in Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona, Jan 2005.
 <http://www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/paleontology/pub/grd3_3/pefo3.htm>

[xii]  State of Washington. “The Symbols of Washington State: State Gem: Petrified Wood”.
1 Sep 2005. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.leg.wa.gov/legis/symbols/symbols.htm>

[xiii]   U. S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park.
“Trees to Stone”. Apr 2004. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.nps.gov/pefo/In_Depth/TreestoStone.htm>

[xiv] James, Robert. YourGemologist.com. “Petrified Wood”. 2005. 30 Jan 2006
<http://www.yourgemologist.com/Kids/petrifiedwood/petrifiedwood.html>

[xv]  National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park
<http://www.nps.gov/pefo/In_Depth/TreestoStone.htm>

[xvi] Ralph, Jolyon. mindat.org. “Petrified Wood”. 2006. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.mindat.org/show.php?id=8018>

[xvii] Holleran, Patrick. ParkVision. “Petrified Forest National Park”. 2006. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.shannontech.com/ParkVision/PetForest/PetForest.html>

[xviii]  Wikipedia. “Araucarioxylon arizonicum”.  31 Jan 2006. 31 Jan 2006
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Araucarioxylon_arizonicum>

[xx]  National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park
<http://www.nps.gov/pefo/In_Depth/TreestoStone.htm>

[xxii] Crossley, John. The American Southwest. “Petrified Forest National Park:
Geology”. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.americansouthwest.net/arizona/petrified_forest/geology.html>

[xxiii] Huwig. Case Western Reserve University. “The Jesse Earl Hyde Collection”.
Petrified Forest, Calistoga, California, Upper Tertiary”. Slides 744.B.1 – B.4. 31 Jan 2006
<http://geology.cwru.edu/~huwig/catalog/cenozoic.html>

[xxiv]  Wikipedia. “Petrified Palmwood”.  23 Oct 2005. 31 Jan 2006
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrified_palmwood>

[xxvi]  BrushyBasin.com. “Petrified Wood” 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.brushybasin.com/Gift_Fossils/PWS/pws.html>

[xxviii]  Bluemle, John P., North Dakota Geological Survey. “Lewis & Clark, Geology,
and North Dakota”. 28 Sep 2005. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.state.nd.us/ndgs/lewis&clark/lewis&clark1.htm>

[xxix] Southwest Explorations. “Petrified Forest.” 2001. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.tomjonas.com/swex/petrifiedforest.htm>

[xxx] statefossils.com. 12 Jan 2003. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.statefossils.com/index.html>

 

 

Until Next Time

     We hope you have enjoyed traipsing the countryside and scouring museums in our search
for all the forms of petrified wood.  Perhaps you'll take one of the many side-trips, or work up
some logs in the lap lab.  Don't be late for next month's trip.  We shall board a jet and travel to
world locales for exotic petrified wood.  See you then!
     Until then, stay safe, and happy collecting. hardhat2a.gif (5709 bytes)

 

Article Contributors:

Photo & Graphics Credits

I would like to gratefully acknowledge the generous contributions of our fellow Strontianite
enthusiasts, collectors, authors, curators, professionals, and club members who made this
work possible. 
Thanks.

Christy Marx, Professional Photographer, Christy Marx Photography

Dr. Stephen Ervin, Professor of Zoology - Emeritus, CSU, Corvus Home Page

Gene Hartstein, Harstein Fossils, and DMS Member

Larry Hauser, Steve Pezzano, and Earl English,
The Mineral and Lapidary Museum of Henderson County, Inc.

Gary Nickel, Sculptor, Inventor, The Gemstone Art of Gary Nickel

Chris and Candida Provencher & Family, Chris & Candida's Website

Scott W. Parker, Scott's National Parks Project

Jackie Lapin and Family, Spheres To You

Steve Speer and Family, Sticks-in-Stones Lapidary

Howard and Harvey Kenfield, The Petrified Wood Gallery

Jolyon Ralph, Mindat.org

Jon Sullivan from wikipedia

Reinhard Kraasch from wikipedia

FLW Wood

2006  All contributions to this article are covered under the copyright protection of this article
and by separate and several copyright protection(s), and are to be used for the sole purposes of
enjoying this scholarly article.  They are used gratefully with express written permission of the
authors, save for generally-accepted scholarly quotes, short in nature, deemed legal to reference
with the appropriate citation and credit.
  Reproduction of this article must be obtained by express
written permission of the author, Kenneth B. Casey, for his contributions, authoring, photos, and
graphics.  Use of all other credited materials requires permission of each contributor separately
.

Links and general contact information are included in the credits above, and throughout this article.
The advice offered herein are only suggestions; it is the reader's charge to use the information
contained herein responsibly.  DMS is not responsible for misuse or accidents caused from this
article. All opinions, theories, proofs, and views expressed within this article, and in others on this
website, do not necessarily reflect the views of the Delaware Mineralogical Society.
 

Suggested Reading

 

Petrified Forests: The World's 31 Most Beautiful Petrified Forests by Ulrich Dernbach

Secrets of Petrified Plants: Fascination Form Millions of Years (Hardcover)
by Ulrich Dernbach

Petrified Wood : The World of Fossilized Wood, Cones, Ferns, and Cycads
by Frank J. Daniels

Petrified wood in the U.S.A: Where to collect it where to see it
(A state-by-state field guide)
by Arthur Manning

Petrified Forest: A Story in Stone by Sidney R. Ash

Stately Fossils: A Comprehensive Look at the State Fossils and Other Official Fossils
by Stephen Brusatte

The Brothers Grimm: From Enchanted Forests to the Modern World by Jack Zipes

About the Author:

KEN.JPG (31503 bytes)

     Ken is current webmaster of the Delaware Mineralogical Society.  He has a diploma in Jewelry Repair, Fabrication & Stonesetting from the Bowman Technical School, Lancaster, PA, and worked as jeweler.  He has also studied geology at the University of Delaware.  And, he is currently a member of the Delaware Mineralogical Society and the Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society.  E-mail: kencasey98@yahoo.com.


Webliography & Bibliography

Wikipedia. “Petrified Wood”.   14 Jan 2006. 30 Jan 2006
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrified_wood>

Robert Teisberg. Ancientwood, Ltd. “The World’s Oldest Wood, Ancient Kauri”. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.ancientwood.com/index.htm>

Roy Piggott, The Australian Lapidary Magazine, January 1970, p. 9. and ; R.C. Pearce,
'Petrified wood', The Australian Lapidary Magazine, June 1970, p. 33.

The Associated Press. USAToday. Space & Science: “Topping Mother Nature, lab makes
petrified wood in days”. 25 Jan 2005, 9:33 AM. 30 Jan 2006
<http://www.usatoday.com/tech/science/discoveries/2005-01-25-petrified_x.htm?csp=15>

Azom.com. News: “Instant Petrified Wood Yields Super Ceramics”. 2 Jun 2005. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.azom.com/details.asp?newsID=3292>

Computational Science in Education: National Computational Science Education Consortium.
“How Does Wood Petrify?: ‘Instant’ Petrified Wood: Patent ‘Recipe’ for Petrification”. 30 Jan 2006
<http://www.ncsec.org/cadre2/team2_2/Lessons/howDoesWoodPetrify.htm>

United States Patent & Trademark Office: USPTO Full-text and Image Database: United States
Patent #4,612,050. 16 Sep 1986. 31 Jan 2006
<http://patft.uspto.gov/netacgi/nph-Parser?Sect1=PTO1&Sect2=HITOFF&d=PALL&p=1&u=
/netahtml/srchnum.htm&r=1&f=G&l=50&s1=4,612,050.WKU.&OS=PN/4,612,050&RS=
PN/4,612,050
>

physorg.com: Science, Technology, Physics, Space News: “Nanotechnology Treatment Protects
Wood in Australia”. Nanotechnology: 7 Feb 2005. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.physorg.com/news2954.html>

John P. Bluemle, North Dakota Geological Survey. “North Dakota Notes No. 3: North Dakota’s
Petrified Wood”. 28 Sep 2005. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.state.nd.us/ndgs/NDNotes/ndn3_h.htm>

Andrew B. Heckert1 and Spencer G. Lucas2 . 1Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences,
University of New Mexico, Albuquerque and 2New Mexico Museum of Natural History and
Science, Albuquerque. Stratigraphic Distribution and Age of Petrified Wood in Petrified Forest
National Park, Arizona, Jan 2005. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www2.nature.nps.gov/geology/paleontology/pub/grd3_3/pefo3.htm>

State of Washington. “The Symbols of Washington State: State Gem: Petrified Wood”.
1 Sep 2005. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.leg.wa.gov/legis/symbols/symbols.htm>

U. S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park.
“Trees to Stone”. Apr 2004. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.nps.gov/pefo/In_Depth/TreestoStone.htm>

Robert James. YourGemologist.com. “Petrified Wood”. 2005. 30 Jan 2006
<http://www.yourgemologist.com/Kids/petrifiedwood/petrifiedwood.html>

Jolyon Ralph. mindat.org. “Petrified Wood”. 2006. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.mindat.org/show.php?id=8018>

Patrick Holleran. ParkVision. “Petrified Forest National Park”. 2006. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.shannontech.com/ParkVision/PetForest/PetForest.html>

Wikipedia. “Araucarioxylon arizonicum”.  31 Jan 2006. 31 Jan 2006
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Araucarioxylon_arizonicum>

John Crossley. The American Southwest. “Petrified Forest National Park: Geology”.
31 Jan 2006
<http://www.americansouthwest.net/arizona/petrified_forest/geology.html>

Huwig. Case Western Reserve University. “The Jesse Earl Hyde Collection”. Petrified Forest,
Calistoga, California, Upper Tertiary”. Slides 744.B.1 – B.4. 31 Jan 2006
<http://geology.cwru.edu/~huwig/catalog/cenozoic.html>

Wikipedia. “Petrified Palmwood”.   23 Oct 2005. 31 Jan 2006
<http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Petrified_palmwood>

BrushyBasin.com. “Petrified Wood” 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.brushybasin.com/Gift_Fossils/PWS/pws.html>

John P. Bluemle, North Dakota Geological Survey. “Lewis & Clark, Geology, and North
Dakota”. 28 Sep 2005. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.state.nd.us/ndgs/lewis&clark/lewis&clark1.htm>

Southwest Explorations. “Petrified Forest.” 2001. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.tomjonas.com/swex/petrifiedforest.htm>

statefossils.com. 12 Jan 2003. 31 Jan 2006
<http://www.statefossils.com/index.html>

 

Invitation to Members

Members,

Want to see your name in print?  Want to co-author, contribute, or author a whole Mineral of the Month article?  Well, this the forum for you!

And Members, if you have pictures, or a story you would like to share, please feel free to offer.  We'd like to post them for our mutual enjoyment.   Of course, you get full photo and author credit, and a chance to reach other collectors, hobbyists, and scientists.  We only ask that you check your facts, give credit where it is due, keep it wholesome for our Junior Members watching, and keep on topic regarding rockhounding.

You don't even have to be experienced in making a webpage.  We can work together to publish your story.  A handwritten short story with a Polaroid will do.  If you do fancier, a text document with a digital photo will suit, as well.   Sharing is the groundwork from which we can get your story out there.

Our club's webpages can reach any person surfing the net in the world, and even on the International Space Station, if they have a mind to view our website!

We are hoping for a possible tie-in to other informative programs upon which our fellow members might want to collaborate.  Contact any officer or board member with your suggestions.

Our next MOTM will be "Petrified Wood: Part II".  For 2006, we are waiting for your suggestions.  What mineral do you want to know more about?

aniagate.gif (1920 bytes)

____________________________________

Most of the Mineral of the Month selections have come from most recent club fieldtrips and March Show Themes, and from inspiring world locales and people, thus far.  If you have a suggestion for a future Mineral of the Month, please e-mail me at: kencasey98@yahoo.com, or tell me at our next meeting.

 

 

 

       

  


Next Meeting
 

April Program, Monday, April 8, 2013:

"Destruction of the Fossil Exposures in the Chesapeake Bay Area" presented by Dr. Lauck Ward

General Club Meeting:
April 8, 2013
(Monday)

We are meeting at
Greenbank Mill


Special Meetings:
 

*Show Committee Meeting, April or May, 2013

*New Home/Lapidary Committee, 2013

*Board Meeting,  April, 2013

Next Field Trips
 

Fieldtrips!

Past Fieldtrips
 

Next Show
DMS March Show
March 1-2, 2014 at DelTech Stanton

 


Our 2013 Show Theme was:
"All That Glitters is as Good as Gold!"

March Show 2013 Report

Updates!

 

 

 
Articles

 

Fossil Forum


"Dinny, the Dino"

"Belemnites are coming"

 

MOTM June also commemorates our 50th Show!

It's shiny, yellow, and is a symbol of 50 Years!Can you guess?

Past MOTM

Collecting Adventure Stories:

"Sunny Brook Crick Goethite" by Joe Dunleavy