After deliberation, our Show
Committee chose The World of Agates to be our clubs show theme
this year. Wayne Urion, our Show Chairman,
agreed that an article on agates would be just the thing
to prepare our members and visitors for our
March 5-6, 2005 Show.
I was inspired by member Teddi
Silvers presentation on agates in early 2004. Somehow,
Idar-Oberstein, Germany stuck out in my mind months after her informative program. So, I started
there. I chatted online with German
mineralogist, Roger Lang. He introduced me
to some collectors
around his native area of Rhineland-Palatinate. My best correspondence was with Robert Huber of
Oppenau. He and his wife Ursula shared
pictures and information on their collection. You
some of their sammlung (German for collection) later in this article.
After much research, I found
that there is so much out there on the world of agates, that I could
only concentrate on a few types and locales. As
the focus is on learning, collecting, and lapidary
here, I chose Scotland, Germany, and the United States.
Of course, you will see pictures and
information about other famous places throughout the article with links to more.
From Scotland, we will see the
work of Mary Young, who currently serves as Membership
Secretary of The Scottish Mineral &
Lapidary Club, and see the work of Hamilton Currie, author of
the website Minerals of
Scurdie Ness, Montrose,
Dunure, Ayrshire, Scotland
Photos courtesy of Hamilton Currie from his "Scottish Agates" Page
From the U. S., we have an
interview with Karen Brzys, owner/curator of the Gitche
and History Museum and author of Understanding and Finding
Agates. We will show the work from
the owners of Beautiful Agates, Austen
S. Cargill and Michael R.
Carlson. Mr. Carlson is the author
of the book The Beauty of Banded Agates.
And, Roger K. Pabian, Research
Geologist, Emeritus, Conservation and Survey Division,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln has agreed to let us show you examples from his agate database
project. Dr. Pabian, has also co-written an
agate tome, titled "Banded
Agates, Origins and Inclusions"
with Andrejs Zarins.
You will also see the works of other generous agateers from the world over, who
consented to share their collections with us. Thank
There are many colorful stones in the mineral kingdom. Some exhibit bold, bright colors, like
yellow sulfur and red rhodochrosite crystals. Even
fluorites cubes can act as luminous beacons to
grab our attention. None of these wonders
compare to the multi-colored banding of agate.
Beyond collecting, lies a world
of witness to grand varieties of this well-collected stone, found all
over the world. Greater still is agates
potential to fool us from the ground, its natural covering almost
never bespeaking of the hidden blazes of deep color beneath. Once in the hands of a lapidary, this
plain jane bauble can become almost more than what the imagination wills it to
be. No matter how
you slice it (pun intended), you will always be surprised by the outcome.
Fire Agate, Turtle Mtn.,
Mexican Agate, Michael Carlson
This article will touch upon
agates from all over the world. I will
elaborate on their beauty, some
science, and their use in lapidary projects. Some
of the best material comes from Germany, the U. S.,
and Scotland; so, I will concentrate on those areas, mostly. If you, the reader, want to know more
about agates from other locales, please let me know.
I will endeavor to include them in a future article.
The links below should begin to whet your appetite and your grinding wheel.
In this piece you will meet a museum curator and author, another preeminent author of a book on
agates, the collections of international connoisseurs and museums, an officer in the Scottish Mineral &
Lapidary Club, and an amazing work on Scottish Agates.
For all its beauty, agate is
simply silicon dioxide (SiO2), or microcrystalline quartz. Formed by
silica in hollow cavities after volcanic lava has cooled, the nodules are wrested from
their place by
erosion. We can find them either on the
ground, in situ (still in place after formation), and at rock
shows. Its color derives from a mysterious
More on Agate Science
You might ask, What gives
agate banding its color? The answer is
simple: metals. In nature,
silicate minerals, like our agate (SiO2), can be cooked over time
by adding pigments of iron,
manganese, copper, etc. as it forms. Each
element imparts a different color. For
oxides impart red, brown, black, or green. Combinations
of metals can mix to form wonderful hues
to wow us.[i]
For a primer on Agate Basics,
visit the Gitche
Gumee Agate and History Museum website.
Varieties of Agate
There are hundreds of varieties
of agate. Names range from Lake Superior
Agate, denoting a
location, to Condor Agate found in the Andean foothills of Argentina. Isnt the banding phenomenal?
Superior Agates, polished ©2005 Michael Carlson
©2005 Michael Carlson
©2005 Michael Carlson
Wood, Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona
a fossil, petrified wood makes for a nice agate. These
well-preserved trees are famously
found in the American west and in Australia. Moss
Agate belongs to the family, even though it is
not banded. The dendritic (branching)
structures inside are not trees, or plants, for that matter, but
are oxides of manganese.[ii]
But mossy illusion is still nice to gaze upon. Oregon, Arizona, Washington,
California, Florida, Wyoming, and Delaware all claim home to this solid, archaic timber. Whereas, moss agate occurs over much of the
western United States, especially in Montana.
With hundreds of varieties of world agate known, a compilation
of data on them would be voluminous, and beyond the scope of this article. To assist
us in our quest for varieties, Dr. Roger Pabian, Professor Emeritus at the
University of Nebraska, Lincoln, has offered a free online database for your use at: http://csd.unl.edu/agates/agatepageintro.asp.
The Professor has been kind enough to offer us a taste here. Just click on the default lookup location of
Antarctica, and see Tony Newmans polished pebble from McMurdo Sound.
Moss Agate; Photo by Michael
Agate Page Database
Jean-Baptiste Silla, Stephanie Gregoire
||Antarctic Agate, Tony Newman
So now, I will touch upon some
major global locales with a few pictures, just to fuel your
imagination. International classic locations
for agates in general include: Idar-Oberstein, Germany,
Scotland, Botswana, Brazil, Jamaica, Mexico, Canada, and Queensland, Australia.
Some important U. S. and
Canadian places are: Montana, South Dakota, the Lake Superior
region (from Grand Marais, Minnesota to Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada), and British
Agates from Beautiful Agates, Michael R. Carlson & Austen S. Cargill ©2005
|Queensland Agate, Australia
A Brief History of Agate Use & Collecting
From its Mediterranean history, the Agate (Drillo) river basin was [r]ich in agate
deposits, Roman invaders found precious stones in the area more than 2,000 years ago, and
continued to be found there until not too long ago.[vi]
Mithradates, ancient king of
Pontus, was an agate enthusiast. His
collection amounted to up to
4,000 bowls. What an agate aficionado! This pursuit lasted from the time of the Byzantine
to Renaissance royalty.[vii]
In Medieval England, flint
(agates relative) was employed as a plentiful building stone. Flint faced
walls with brick or sometimes stone bases, cappings, facing courses, piers, buttresses or
frequently found in the towns, villages and farmsteads
Our agate would yet be too
foot the bill.
During the Renaissance,
[c]ameos are cut from stones, such as onyx or agate, where different
colors occur in layers. The background material is cut away, leaving the cameo design in
Agate is one of the gemstones, that used in commesso, also called florentine mosaic.
is a technique of fashioning pictures with thin, cut-to-shape pieces of brightly colored,
stones, developed in Florence in the late 16th century.[ix]
Around 1500 AD, Italian
glassmakers successfully replicated agate in glass to suit the tastes
and pocketbooks of the merchant class. Calcedonio
glass imitates the gemstone chalcedony, a
form of banded agate. Writing of Venice in 1500, Marcantonio Sabellico noted that
there is no kind
of precious stone that cannot be imitated by the industry of the glassworkers.[x]
Many modern museums hold splendid examples, the
Louvre in Paris, the Kunsthhistorisches
Museum, Vienna, and the Corning Glass Museum in
Corning, New York, for example.
Brazilian agate carved bowl from Idar-Oberstein, Germany
©2005 Lawrence H. Conklin
Today, modern lapidaries can use
high-powered machines to make short work of carving.
slab-cutters to tile-cutters and motorized carving tools, the potential that the artist
sees within the
stone can quickly arise by using these electric tools.
Polishers help him or her to finish the job
quite nicely. (A bowl, for example, could be
an enticing project. Some modern finished
be seen at the Indiarockhounder.)
Many clubs have formed all over the world just for this purpose. Though there are still those who
prefer to knap flint and agate, decorative stone and jewelry work are the most popular
The Lore of Agate
Agates attraction goes
beyond its visual beauty. The noble nature of
this stone lends towards
the giving of attributes of power, far above that of social status via ornamentation. The ancients
believed that agate would protect the soldier in battle, make oneself invisible, or even
Today, some folks attribute metaphysical properties to it.
For others, it bespeaks of opulence.
As mentioned earlier, agate
lends itself to a religious significance. From
being sacred to the
earliest toolmakers, to acting as vessels for ceremonies, agate foot the bill.
Scholars might even
speculate that the Holy Grail was indeed crafted of agate, as it was of common usage in
In fact, today we may choose to offer a gift of agate to our spouse on his or her wedding
anniversary. Traditionally, any agate will work in the celebration of the 12th year
whereas, moss agate is appropriate for the 14th. I know this because I once sold
agate this way
as a fine jeweler.
Though the focus of this article is to appeal to the hobbyist and collector, a little
storytelling, based in historical truth, might help us towards our appreciation of
this natural wonder.
All told, with the greatest respect to our ancestors and metaphysicians, of course.
In Greece, the power of
agate was considered so strong that Orpheus is depicted as carrying
agate on his descent into Hades. Agate was thought to assist in finding hidden treasures,
happiness, build confidence and bring victory. In Persia, agate was worn to confer
And, ancient magi used it to turn away storms. It
purportedly protected the wearer from thirst,
fever, and insomnia.[xiii]
Social status was derived from
the ownership and use of premium household items. The
Romans had a taste for luxury tablewares, especially vessels made from semi-precious
gold, and silver. Vessels carved from various forms of chalcedony, especially
agate, were the
A Romano-Egyptian agate
bowl of age 1-200 AD [72.A1.38], in the J. Paul Getty
Museum of Los Angeles, California, speaks volumes to agate's beauty and use.
Today, you can buy an heirloom piece to experience this opulence. For example, Orpheus Art
online offers a Parthian Agate finger ring (~ 200 AD) for a modern price.
A prize in the Hermitage Museum,
St. Petersburg, Russia is a snuffbox of
Great (circa 1765), Berlin, Germany. It is
finely crafted from agate, gold, rubies, cut diamonds,
jade chased and engraved.[xv]
In recent times, much of the carved agate goods for trade were made in the
cutting center of
Idar-Oberstein, Germany. Since about 1497, the Nahe River was used to power their
wheels. With the exhaustion of local commercial material, they plied their trades
Brazilian stock. Cameos and decorative vessels were made in the region since the
desire for these carved products were demanded, and still produced today.[xvi]
Later in this article, I will introduce you to some German agate connoisseurs,
who have been
instrumental in making this work possible.
Where can Agates be found?
Agates can be found on every continent, nearly every country, and
in most of the United
States (28 states)[xvii] Yes, strangely enough, a specimen has been found at McMurdo
Station, Antarctica! (see: above)
You don't have to be a globe trekker or an Antarctic explorer, though, to enjoy the find
appealing agate. If you have the fortune of collecting grounds in your area, so much
My correspondence with two German collectors has shown me that there are still prized
specimens yet to be had there.
A Scottish collector, Mary Young of the Scottish Mineral & Lapidary Club, has told me
Scotland holds yet some treasures, but permissions from farmers and quarry owners is
to come by these days. That seems to be a commonality, usually based on insurance
liability claims from the land owners. In my experience, many folks are still
likely, on occasion
to allow the occasional rockhound access. Most report good experiences with guests
One way to not wear out our collective welcome would be to join a local club or society.
A rock quarry, for example, might require more of an effort to obtain the privilege.
appropriate insurances, signed release forms, and the club's good reputation, we could
the fellowship of the hunt, all to everyone's success.
If you prefer, trading with agate enthusiasts can work to mutual advantage. Silver
works, as well. Depending on where you live, various rock, mineral, fossil, and gem
can offer you a vast assortment of material assembled under one roof.
If you surf the Internet, online vendors and auction houses might suit. Don't forget
rock shop, museum store, or jewelry & gift stores. If you hint, perhaps someone
will surprise you
with a gift of agate.
Mineralogical Society March 2004 Show
||Polished Agates by Alec
The Scottish Mineral & Lapidary Club
from their "At Home" event
What does it take to
become an agateer? Well, only to the desire to do so is this
definition. To be a writer, you write. To be a swimmer, you swim.
Agateering is no different. An
experienced agateer can distinguish agates from different localesand there are many.
stories of a couple of well-known folks, one local, one global, I believe, could motivate
you to learn
Robert Proctor, Professor of History at Penn State University, trekked to
the Agate (Drillo) River
in Sicily in 2001 to seek the source of the agates namesake. In an article by Nancy Marie Brown,
called The Agateer, Dr. Proctor ventures to collect from the ancient home of
our favorite stone. His
collecting story is an inspiring read.
Herbert Hoover, American President, agate collector
Herbert Hoover collected agates around his West Branch, Iowa boyhood home.
As a ten-year old boy, Mr. Hoover scouted the grounds around his home for the rare
search, you discovered gems of agate and fossil
coral which could with infinite backaches be polished on the grindstone. Their fine
points came out wonderfully when wet, and you had to lick them with your tongue
before each exhibit.[xviii]
Our 31st President started his early career as a mining engineer, after having graduated from
Stanford University in 1895 with a geology degreethe only geologist to become an American
President.[xix] [xx] Today, Iowas Geode is the official state rock.
In addition to this mid-western state, agate
occurs on about 27 others.[xxi] Professor Proctor
states that he had hunted agates in many of them.
One wonders if Mr. Hoover made opportunity to
search in his travels as
Iowa Agate Geode from
Grounds for Agateering
Eight states have deemed agate either their official rock, mineral, or gemstone. They are:
[Gemstone] Nebraska - Blue agate, South Dakota - Fairburn agate, Kentucky - Fortification agate,
Louisiana Agate, Minnesota - Lake Superior agate; [Mineral] Montana Agate, Arizona - Fire
agate; [Rock] Nebraska - Prairie agate, Tennessee agate.[xxii]
Some states have neither, such as, New Jersey, Ohio, Mississippi, Maine, and Utah.[xxiii]
Perhaps some of you, who would like your state to have Agate as your official mineral, could
do so by suggestion through a teacher, school, or even your local rock club. Drafting a campaign
letter is a good start to declare your interest in having an official state rock, mineral or gemstone
be made. Though, it is necessary that agate may be found in your state.
So, collecting opportunities abound. Many books, websites, and clubs specialize in agate.
To find out more, check the Suggested Reading area below. Also, please visit the websites
cited in this article. There is a wealth of information out there for your search. From a recent
keyword search, I found about 852,000 hits for webpages that key to agate. If you are keyed
to agate, there is a lot on the Internet for you.[xxiv]
Whats in a name?
The original place of agates, as we know them today, is in the Achates (now Drillo) River
in Sicily. The word agate comes from the ancient Greek agathe, meaning good. The proper
name, Agatha derives from this classic term.[xxv]
The Romans made it achates in Latin, much like the German achat(e) of today.[xxvi] In an
historic reference, the waterway [s]o called, says Pliny (xxxvii. 10), from Achats or Gagates,
a river in Sicily, near which it is found in abundance.[xxvii]
A famous Agatha is renowned mystery writer, Agatha Christie. I wonder if Pliny knew any
Agathas. I digress.
The word agate has been translated into many
languages over time. Here are a few:
Agate in translations[xxviii]
German = Achat, Achate
French = agate
Spanish = ágata
Greek = achatis, akhates
Latin = achates
Italian = agata
Dutch = agaat
Polish = agat
Etaco.com Online Dictionaries.
[Many languages used]. 24 Jan. 2005
Photo by Michael Carlson ©2005
Agate Names in Geography since ancient times
Some places have
toponomic names (from a prominent geographic or geologic feature), such
as Agate Beach in Newport,
Oregon and the Agate Cove Inn in
Mendocino, California; both overlook
the Pacific Ocean. Agates occur in Oregon, however, may no longer be collected from
in deference to beach erosion and preservation. I found that out by visiting there;
the area is posted
for no collecting. And the Agate Cove Inn has no agates, only a great view. I
did find an Agate Inn
in Wasilla, Alaska, however. If you visit, it has agates! If you want to live
in a town called Agate,
there is one in Colorado, Population: 364. Are there agates there? Well, you
will have to explore
Some towns hold annual festivals. Moose Lake, Minnesota
holds Agate Days.
They have been
celebrating their local Lake Superior Eye Agate for over 35 years. A fun event there
is the Stampede.
In this event a dump truck unloads tons of rock mixed with some prized agate and
quarters. A true
treasure huntfinders keepers.
Other places with Agate in their name can fool us,
yet be of interest to rockhounds. For example, If you want to mail a postcard from your trip to any agate-named
place, you could
the Agate Fossil Beds
National Monument in Nebraska is one. Few agates, per se, lots of fossils;
it is worth a trip.
use a postage stamp with an agate picture. Many have been produced. The Gem, Rock, and Mineral
Postage Stamps Featuring Agate page will show you a few. Richard Busch offers
this site to those of
us who want to know more about Philatelic Mineralogy. Sadly, no current
U. S. issue is available for
use. Perhaps you would like to suggest an agate stamp to be commissioned from the U.
Service. If so, write to the Citizens Stamp
Advisory Committee, or your countrys postal authority.
If chosen, it may take some time before the stamp is printed, distributed, and ready for
you to use.
Lapidaries from around the
world work their native spun agates into incomparable works of
art--as no two bits are alike. Unless, of course, you count the popular
mirror-images cut from
the same piece of agate!
Huber Collection ©2005
bookends and thin slab lamps to beads, jewelry, and marbles (aggies) can
grace the picking tables and collections of agate connoisseurs. If we were playing
using aggies, we could play for funsies or
keepsies. How about it?
Phtotos by Mary Young ©2002
Historically, [t]he cutting and staining of agates has long been centered at Idar-Oberstein,
Today, some folks like to cut & polish big slabs in their diamond-bladed rock saws to reveal
a cross-section of its inner beauty. Others choose to take smaller pieces to create cabochons,
beads, and jewelry. A select few are into shaping perfectly round spheres from bumpy blocks
from this banded wonder. This is challenging, yet yields reward of enjoyment by many.
slices window panes
Young's cabs, 2004
of The Scottish Mineral & Lapidary Club, Photos by Mary Young & Arthur Nicholson
This author has tumbled and knapped, and has a healthy respect for the skill and patience
required to perform these and all lapidary tasks.
Featured Agate Collectors
This next section offers some
interesting stories of agate collectors around the world.
I was fortunate to
find Karen Brzys, Curator of the Gitche Gumee Agate and History Museum
in Grand Marais, Michigan, and author of the book Understanding and Finding
agreed to an interview:
How did you come to know and love agates?
I used to hang out at the Gitche Gumee Agate Museum with the founder, Axel Niemi, when
I was a child. Since I had damage to my optic nerve from too much oxygen in the incubator
when I was born premature, my eyesight did not develop until I was 10. My grandparents and/or
parents would drop me off at the museum and I would listen to Axel's stories, agate teachings,
and impromptu musical performances. I am convinced to this day that when my eyesight started
to improve, the examination of agates helped the optic nerve to develop even further. I have been
a rockhound ever since.
What was your most fun experience with agates?
Re-opening the museum on July 4, 1999 and interacting with over 20,000 people who have visited
the museum since. I have a box of agates and other great specimens called "the wowser box."
I just love it when people say wow and can't believe the beauty of the wowser rocks.
What else would you like to share with our readers on the subject?
In this fast paced world that we live in, we can leave our stress behind when we hunt for agates
and other minerals. I am glad that I can carry on Axel's legacy and help people to learn about
rocks and minerals, and to escape their responsibilities even if it is for short periods of time.
Mary Young is the Membership
Secretary of The Scottish Mineral & Lapidary Club, in Edinburgh,
Scotland. She was kind enough to offer and
provide photos of her clubs At Home event. She even took some Scottish agate pictures
especially for us!
She uses a Kodak DC240; her husband likes the
Nikon Coolpix 950. She has shared
photographing her clubs event with another fellow club member, and lapidary, Arthur
Mary tells me that Arthur makes spheres of various materials including some Scottish agate.
Arthur Nicholson, one of our members, made all these spheres using the equipment at our
Club - saws and grindstones take them to rough shape, the final shaping done on cups attached
to the central spindle of our horizontal laps.
Arthur also lives in Edinburgh.
Her fellow club members are mineral enthusiasts, some amateur lapidarists, who specialize in
sphere-making, cabochons, and jewelry crafts. Just like many rockhounds or fossickers recount
interesting stories of their finds, her fellow member Avril could probably tell me where she found it -
within a hundred yards. (see: below)
(Left: Cabs & Jewelry crafted by Avril and her fellow club members; Right: Agate map of Scotland)
Historically, Scotland abounded in sharp-banded wonders.
Recently, Mary told me that her
native stones are hard to come by, as farmers and quarry owners are reticent to grant
these days. In Scotland, they have adventures
in 'agate hunting'; whereas, the
occasional term 'fossicking' is sometimes used (borrowed from Australian collectors). Much of her clubs lapidary work is enjoyed
with the classic German Idar-Oberstein and Brazilian stock.
That makes projects lapped by her club even more exotic and appealing today. Thanks, Mary.
slide show (Internet Explorer)
slide show (Netscape)
[Best viewed in
"Full Screen" or "F11"]
Robert and Ursula Huber have
been specializing in the collection of agates since 1991.
in Oppenau, Germany, they are fortunate enough to have a natural source of agates in or
backyard! Robert loves to photograph his
collection, and has posted his website
achate (German for agate). His
site is in German. If you read German, all
the better. If not,
his pictures are wonderful to browse.
Usually, the agates are named for places. Most
of his captions speak of the placename. For
example, at the bottom of his homepage, you will see Achat aus Baden-Baden. This translates
to Agate from Baden-Baden [Germany].
||Halbkugel (Hemisphere) from
||The Hubers' Collection
Robert and I corresponded over
the last few weeks. He trying out his school
English, and I
fumbling over my high school German and online
dictionary. Despite the language
common interest in agates guided us to the work you will see here. (And, yes, Robert did agree
to send some extra photos that you may not see on his website.)
For more German agates, check
out his Links zu unseren
Mineralienfreunden, or Links
to/for our Mineral-friends page. Also, check out his slideshow: Internet
Explorer or Netscape.
Agate slide show (Internet Explorer)
Agate slide show (Netscape)
[Best viewed in
"Full Screen" or "F11"]
Thanks to Roger Lang, German mineralogist for the introduction. Roger is a collector and
family man living and collecting in Rhineland-Palatinate.
His website (German/English) is at: MontanparkMinerals, Crystals and More.
Club, Collector & Vendor Sites
U. S., Canada & Mexico
Gitche Gumee Agate and History Museum
Rocks for Kids
36th Annual Agate Days at Moose Lake, Minnesota, Pictures of Agate Days
The Agate Page and Database
Kentucky Agate Museum
Red Top Mountain Cliffs, Washington
Float Trips on the Yellowstone (Montana Moss Agate)
Four Corners Dendritic Agate (California)
Fire Agate, Turtle Mountain, Needles, CA (BLM Land)
Klinker Precious Opal Deposit, Vernon, BC, Canada
Petrified Forest National Park, Arizona
Mary Youngs Scullomie Pages/Minerals & Lapidary
The Scottish Mineral & Lapidary Club
Hamilton Curries Minerals of Scotland Scottish Agates Page
Chris Harlows Scottish Agate site
Terry Moxons Agate website
Scottish Agates by David G. Anderson
Germany (These sites are in German. The pictures are fantastic!)
Achate-Schwarzwald (Robert and Ursula Huber)
MontanparkMineralien Krystalle und mehr..
(Roger Lang, Mineralogist and Collector, Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany)
MontanparkMinerals, Crystals and more... (Roger Lang, English version)
Herbert Jäckal: Mineralien und Schmuck
Mineralogisch-Geologischer Arbeitskreis Saar e.V.
Max Kerns Mineralien Photo Ausstellung
Some German words to assist you[xxx]:
Achat = agate
Sammlung = collection
Mineralien = minerals
halbkugel = hemisphere
farbig = colorful
bagger = excavator
ecken = corners
fels = rock
Mineralien aus Steinbach bei Lebach (Saar)
Minerals of Steinbach by Lebach (Saar)
Herbert Jäckel Collection
Photographer, Wolfgang Niesen
Mineralien und Schmuck
Rare Dutch Agates
Rayer-minerals.com (European locales)
Karen Brzys, Author, Owner & Curator, Gitche Gumee Agate and History Museum (photos, interview)
Mary Young, Membership Secretary, The Scottish Mineral & Lapidary Club (photos, info)
Robert & Ursula Huber, Collectors & Connoisseurs of German agates; Schwarzwald Agate (photos)
Roger Lang, Mineralogist; MontparkMinerals, Crystals and More
(who introduced me to the Hubers and to fine German agates)
Hamilton Currie, Author of website Minerals of Scotland (photos, text)
David G. Anderson, Author of website "Scottish Agates" (photos)
Michael R. Carlson, Author of The Beauty of Banded Agates, co-owner Beautiful Agates (photos)
Austen S. Cargill, co-owner Beautiful Agates (photos)
Roger K. Pabian, Research Geologist, Emeritus, Conservation and Survey Division,
University of Nebraska-Lincoln; The Agate Page and Database (agate database and photos)
Herbert Jäckel, Mineralien und Schmuck; Photographer, Wolfgang Niesen (photos)
Lawrence H. Conklin, Mineralogist, New York (agate bowl picture)
Karen Richards, The Jewelry Source, Chicago (quote from text)
The Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia (snuffbox)
United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management & National Park Service
Smithsonian Institution and the National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D. C.
Brzys, Karen. What Is An
Agate?. Gitche Gumee Agate and History Museum Pages.
Grand Marais, MI. 26 Jan. 2005
agate definition/links. 27 Jan. 2005
Origin and History of
Stones/Agate. Semiprecious.com. 27 Jan. 2005
definition/links. 27 Jan. 2005
Barnett, Richard S. The
Gold of That Land: Rocks and Minerals in the Bible: Page 2.
13 Jun. 2004. 27 Jan. 2005
Yonick, Deborah A. ICA
Postcards from Idar-Oberstein. 26 Jan. 2005
Richards, Karen. The Jewelry
Source. Agate Page. 25 Jan. 2005
East Herts Council.
Planning Issues: Flint and Flint Wall Repair. 28 Jan. 2005.
Corning Museum of Glass.
Beyond Venice. Calcedonio ewer, 2001.3.56. 26 Jan. 2005
GemMax. Stone Information:
Stones from around the globe: Agate. 24 Jan. 2005
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Photo & Graphics Credits
I would like to gratefully acknowledge the
generous contributions of our fellow agateers, collectors,
authors, curators, and club members who made this work possible. Thanks.
All contributions to this article are covered under the copyright protection of this
and by separate and several copyright protection(s), and are to be used for the sole
enjoying this scholarly article. They are used gratefully with express written
permission of the
authors, save for generally-accepted scholarly quotes, short in nature, deemed legal to
with the appropriate citation and credit.Reproduction of this article must be obtained by
written permission of the author, Kenneth B. Casey, for his contributions, authoring,
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