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                           Mineral of the Month--April

                        Dolomite

                       Calcium Magnesium Carbonate

                         CaMg(CO3)2

997.jpg (27235 bytes) 2235.jpg (99946 bytes) 1909.jpg (39164 bytes)
Wulfenite on Dolomite
Tsumeb Mine,
Tsumeb, Namibia
Dolomite "Cast"
Var. Cobaltoan
with Wulfenite
Tsumeb Mine,
Tsumeb, Namibia
Quartz on Dolomite
St. Clotilde,
Quebec, Canada

                   Dolomite: Dolomite & Dolostone, Part 1

               By Ken Casey

Preface
Introduction
Chemistry & Science
Crystals
Uses
Dolostone Geology

Lapidary
Endnotes
Article Contributors
Photo & Graphics Credits
Suggested Reading
Webliography
Invitation to Members
Past Minerals of the Month
2157tn.jpg (38474 bytes)

Cerussite with Smithsonite
on Dolomite
Tsumeb Mine,
Tsumeb, Namibia

dolom1.jpg (235951 bytes)
Curved Crystals
of Dolomite
 

Dolomite is much overlooked in the mineral kingdom...

 


...until now!

The above images are courtesy of Isaias Casanova of IC Minerals 2005
and Stand Celestian of
Glendale Community College 2005

Preface

     In a two-part series (this month and next), we will explore Dolomite as our Mineral-of-the-Month. 
More specifically, in part 1, we will explore Dolomite crystals and Dolostone.  In part 2, we will
embark on a journey to New York State of the famous “Herkimer Diamonds” and their dolostone
matrix host.  Uses from crushed stone to recreating over karst topography will be covered.

     Being in the Calcite Family, Dolomite offers remarkable assemblages of crystals from its
related limestone-dolostone host.  Of course we will begin with dolomite science.  Then, we will
touch upon the geologies of both Pennsylvania and New York States, as they relate (from west
to east) to Niagara Falls, Herkimer County, New York, and Eastern Pennsylvania.  We will
compare a few dolomites from around the world from select locales.  Then, from a little
ecotourism to field trips to crystals and collecting, we will travel from west to east, arriving back
at our clubhouse in Wilmington, Delaware.  So grab your hardhat, and lets embark!

Introduction

    Well, it looks like everyone is present and accounted for.  Everyone has their safety gear,
and we have all met up on time at the Schoellkopf Geological Museum in Niagara Falls, New
York.  Let’s go!

     Our first stop is here at the museum to learn of the basic geology of the Niagara Gorge. 
Next, we will explore the riverbank on a special trail, then arrive back at the museum to drive
to our next spot, Herkimer County, New York.

 

gallery_r2_c2_f8.jpg (6084 bytes) herkimer2.jpg (5714 bytes)
Niagara Falls, Photo by Niagara Falls State Park Tan dolomite crystals, Herkimer, New York

Chemistry & Science

Dolomite Chemistry & Crystallography

     Dolomite, which is named for the French Mineralogist Deodat de Dolomieu, consists of
calcium magnesium carbonate or
CaMg(CO3)2.[xiii]

     “Pure dolomite contains 54.28 percent calcium carbonate and 45.72 percent magnesium carbonate.”[xiv]

     Concerning dolomite’s crystallography, crystals typically form rhomobhedral (Hexagonal
System), curved saddle-shapes in groups.  Generally occurring as pink pearl spar, it can
occur in clear, white, gray, tan, or black, depending on its formation with related carbonate-
forming cation substitutions.  For example, with a substitution of iron (Fe) for magnesium (Mg),
brownish ankerite, Fe(CO
3)2 crystals will form.[xv]  Our club has collected such ankerite
crystals from eastern Pennsylvania.

     With a relative hardness of 3.5-4, its differentiation from calcite can be determined by
acid test.

after.jpg (4047 bytes) DolomiteBa222.jpg (3261 bytes)
Brown ankerite on gray dolomite boulder
from Phoenixville, PA, nearly cabinet-ready
Photo by Ken Casey 2005
Rhombohedral Dolomite Crystal
Photo by Stan Celestian 2005

 

Crystals

dolomite.gif (1574 bytes) dolomite2.gif (1799 bytes) dolomite3.gif (6487 bytes)
Dolomite (Hexagonal) Rhomb Dolomite
Steep Rhomb & Base
"Dolomite Saddles"
in Dolostone Matrix

(Drawings by Ken Casey 2005)

 

dolom2.jpg (272590 bytes) Classic pink crystals of Dolomite
from the Tri-State mining district
near Joplin, Missouri

Photo by Stan Celestian 2005
Glendale Community College,
Glendale, Arizona

Specimens provided by the
Arizona Mining and Mineral Museum,
Susan Celestian, Curator

 

DolomiteB222.jpg (59888 bytes) IMGP2304.jpg (4277 bytes)
Rhombohedral Dolomite Crystal Twins Clear and Milky Calcite, Pink Dolomite,
and Purple Fluorite vug, Kurtz Quarry
Photo by Stan Celestian 2005 Photo by Ken Casey 2005

 

Uses

    “Dolomite and dolostone are used for nearly all the same purposes as calcareous
limestone; however, the additional magnesium content allows other uses.  In the case of
dolomite rock or ‘dolostone’, the calcite, quartz, and feldspar constituents together form
a tougher dimensional stone.

     “The most important use of dolostone for which limestone cannot be substituted is in the
manufacture of refractory dolomite and in the preparation of heat-insulating materials.
Limestones and dolostones high in silica are suitable for the manufacture of mineral or rock
wool for insulation.”[i]

     “A source of magnesium metal and magnesia. Also used in as an aggregate for cement
and as a flux in blast furnaces. When dolostone is used a flux, the resulting slag can be
reused for light-weight aggregates and the like, because dolostone slag does not disintegrate
in water as limestone slag does.

     Dolomite is used in manufacturing cement, in addition to being an ornamental stone. 
Dolomite is a major ore from which magnesium is separated, which in turn is burned for use
in a variety of lighting applications, such as photography and pyrotechnics.”[ii]

    “Dolomite is used to make magnesia, which has important medicinal applications.
Dolomite specimens from the Picher, Oklahoma area are very popular among mineral
collectors and dealers. The clear transparent specimens from Spain are rare and unusual,
and are in high demand by collectors.

     Dolomite Rock is used as an ornamental and structural stone, and for extracting certain
metals from their ores. It is useful in the chemical industry in the preparation of magnesium
salts.”[iii]

     For example, a western Pennsylvania company, Moore & Moore in Portersville, hauls
and spreads both dolomite and calcium limes for customers.[iv]

     On the other side of the state, “[t]he Middle Cambrian Ledger Formation in eastern
Pennsylvania is a high purity, single-stage-sintering dolomite. It yields high quality, direct
bonded, environmentally clean, doloma bricks for steel, cement and lime industries use.”[v]

wildernet-com_1829_27201767.gif (14576 bytes)      For recreation one might attempt to traverse the Italian
Dolomite Range of mountains.  According to authors Kohler &
Memmel in their book Classic Dolomite Climbs, a mountaineer
could ascend “multi-peak traverses, long middle-grade classics,
multi-pitch high-peak challenges & free-climbing testpieces.”[vi]

     Even coal-mining reclamation in the United States can benefit
from the presence of dolomite.  In the coal-mining regions of
Pennsylvania, a process called ‘alkaline addition’ is argued to curb
the acidity leaching from mine tailings into the environment.

 

     “The addition of alkaline material, usually a limestone-derived waste product, to surface
mine backfills can be an effective method of compensating for overburden that is naturally
deficient in neutralizers.”[vii]

     “Carbonate minerals play an extremely important role in determining postmining water
chemistry,” as “both calcite and dolomite will neutralize acid, and potentially inhibit pyrite
oxidation.”

     In eastern Pennsylvania, dolomite/calcite rich Pleistocene glacial till has been deposited
to aid in the process.  “In summary, glacial overburden can be beneficial in preventing acid
mine drainage if it is calcareous. Because of the small grain size, unlithified nature, and the
source of carbonates in glacial sediments, the NP determinations of glacial overburden
probably more accurately reflect the ability of the glacial sediments to prevent and neutralize
acid mine drainage than is sometimes the case with bedrock overburden.”[viii]

     Since a clean groundwater source is important to both nature and man, the protection
of aquifers and our karst topographies is of paramount importance to our survival.  Dolomite
and dolostone, by their very nature, erode via the hydrologic cycle, from a mild, acidic rain. 
This runoff over our watersheds, seeps into the bedrock to promote the formation of caves
and subterranean rivers.

     Dolomite and dolostone also serve us above ground, as well.  The Niagara Gorge and
Escarpment development over the last few thousand years has yielded a grand, natural
phenomenon known as Niagara Falls.  A popular tourist attraction spanning the U. S. at
New York and Ontario, Canada, these water features arouse awe, wonder, and hydroelectric
power.

     The famous twentieth-century scientist, Nicola Tesla, designed the power plant that still
serves the electricity needs of two nations.  In fact, the flow of river water over the falls is
regulated to provide optimum power and tourist satisfaction over a day-night cycle.

     This author learned all this while visiting the falls and the Schoellkopf Geologic Museum
in Niagara Falls, New York.  Situated right on the river gorge, this museum specializes in
the makeup of the falls.  For more on the lore of the falls, other popular museums may be
found in the area.

     In our club’s area, many organizations are making a positive impact to preserve our
supportive karst.  For example, in 2004, the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation has
granted funds to the “Bucks County Chapter of Trout Unlimited will prepare and complete
a habitat restoration plan for Mill Creek. The headwaters of the 21 square-mile Mill Creek
watershed are situated within Cambrian limestone and dolomite geology, creating ideal
conditions for a significant cold water fishery.”[ix]

     Many nature preserves around our country and the world rely on the basic karst
topography to support wildlife.  In addition to our U. S. National Park Service, devoted to
conservation, as mentioned in our March 2005 Mineral-of-the-Month article on calcite, three
such organizations around the world stand out to me as fine examples.  They are: The
Missouri Department of Conservation
(for education), the Botsalano Game Reserve in
South Africa (for conservation), and the U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service (for it’s endangered
species programs).

     David Bruns, Conservation Education Consultant in his News from Rockwood Reservation
newsletter article, “We Have Karst”, promotes his state by offering that “[s]edimentary rocks
including limestone and dolomite dominate the geology of Missouri.”[x]

     Missouri cave and karst info: http://www.conservation.state.mo.us/conmag/2000/03/1.htm.

     The Botsalano Game Reserve, formerly a cattle ranch, “[l]ying on the eastern edge of the
Kalahari, the area consists mainly of acacia and karee woodlands and extensive grasslands
dotted with olea clumps which like the dolomite geology.”[xi]

     Our U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service touts that “[t]he Ozarks region of northern Arkansas,
northeastern Oklahoma, and southern Missouri is known for its brilliant autumn foliage,
forested slopes, whitewater streams, icy cold springs, and caves. Springs, sinkholes, and
caves are just a few examples of the types of karst features commonly found in the limestone
and dolomite geology of this region. The term karst is derived from Krs, a place in Slovenia
known for limestone geology (Elliott 2000). In the 17th century, eyeless white salamanders
occasionally washed up out of caves in that region, and inhabitants believed they were the
young of dragons that lived in the earth (Culver et al. 2000).”[xii]  The notion of draconic
troglodytes is intriguing, eh?

 

Dolostone Geology

     “Sea water, high in magnesium, flows through porous limestone and replaces some of the
calcium with magnesium turning limestone into dolostone.”[xvi]   Therefore, some marine fossils
may be found, especially in the grayer materials around the Great Lakes area.

     “Limestone is composed of material derived by both chemical and biological activities. The
particles of sediment that make up a typical limestone are frequently recognizable as fossil
fragments. By contrast, most dolostone is crystalline.  Dolostone forms when magnesium in
pore water is substituted for some of the calcium in the original limestone, or by direct
precipitation. Most limestones of commercial importance accumulated in relatively shallow
marine environments and are widely available for utilization. Carbonate rocks form about 15
percent of the earth's sedimentary strata.”[xvii]


Pennsylvania Dolomite Geology

   The Pennsylvania Trail of Geology publication series, offered by the Pennsylvania
Department of Conservation and Natural Resources
(DCNR), in Park Guide 15 guides you
on a tour of Caledonia and Pine Grove Furnace State Parks.  On a hike you could witness
dolomite geology.

     “The carbonate rock present in some of the low hillsides and valleys of South Mountain is
called the Tomstown Dolomite.  This rock unit is primarily gray dolomite containing interbeds
of white limestone.”  Also, “it has a very low resistance to weathering and thus usually results
in valleys.  Iron ore found at the base of this unit was actively mined in the nineteenth
century.”[xviii]

     If you are heavy into topography and stratigraphy, you might enjoy allusion to more of
Pennsylvania’s geology.

     “Calcite and dolomite occur in the freshwater limestones of the Allegheny, Conemaugh,
Monongahela, and Dunkard Groups. Additionally, in the Monongahela and Dunkard Groups,
calcite and dolomite are the most common carbonate minerals present in other rock types.”

     “Chemical composition data for the Vanport limestone and other Pennsylvanian limestones
and dolomites are shown in Table 8.7. Data from a few Cambrian and Ordovician limestones
and dolomites, including the Valentine limestone from Centre County are included for
comparison, as these high-calcium limestones are well known for their purity and industrial significance…”[xix]

     This is just a taste of the information online, and in books, libraries, and academic papers. 
The DCNR offers many free online publications to learn more of this partially-karsted state.

     Our local dolomite in southeastern Pennsylvania is interspersed with limestone.  All of the
calcium and carbonate families are represented here, including calcite, dolomite, siderite (Mn),
and ankerite (Fe).  Within these ranges over several area quarries, the rock material can be easy to
work for freeing crystals from their vugs, or hellacious.  For the quality of the dolomite crystals
located within, the work is well worth it. 

    Our club’s fieldtrips have rewarded us with magnificent crystals.  Some of the best are pink
saddles nestled in clear calcite and purple fluorite.  An example is from the Kurtz Quarry in
Denver, Pennsylvania.

     Other associated minerals, such as pyrite, chalcopyrite, fluorite, dolomite form massively,
or as crystals, within our area’s limestone and dolostone quarries.  It also occurs with apatite,
barite, gypsum, quartz, and sphalerite.  This author has found some good micromount red
sphalerite and clear quartz crystals in mini-vugs of the Franklin dolostone at the Buckwheat
Dump of the Franklin Mineral Museum, Franklin, New Jersey.

     In Sussex County, New Jersey, it occurs with 358 zinc ore-related minerals, most notably,
near the Franklin Zinc Ore body of franklinite, willemite, and zincite.[xx]

     Beyond our club’s general collecting range lies numerous locales that popularize this vuggy
mineral.  One of our March Show vendors, Isaias Casanova of IC Minerals, has generously lent
some of his dolomite collection photos for us to enjoy.

     To see more Binkley-Ober Quarry Field Trip dolomite vug pictures, visit our field trip pages.

Lapidary

     Michigan Kona Dolomite cabbing rough, slabs, or tumbling rough comes from Kona Hills
South of Marquette, Marquette County, Michigan.  This pink and red, crystalline rock is a major
source for lapidaries.  Two other popular uses for ‘Kona’ are spheres that resemble petrified wood,
and as gemstone handles for art knives.

     Mexican picture dolomite resemble banded agate, whereas, Wisconsin druzy dolomite looks
like reddish-gray quartzite, but softer, of course.  Mottled tan, pink, and purple makes up Forest
County, Wisconsin dolomite rough.

     The countries of Switzerland, Germany, Italy, Morocco, and Spain produce some nice material.

Until Next Time

     If you feel like trekking home before our next installment and field trip to Herkimer, New York,
please do.  We will meet back here on May 1, 2005.  For those of you who want to keep digging,
go right ahead.  There are many resources to explore on this page and links to many others.  By
the time you have explored them all, it will be time to convene for our Herkimer Diamond jaunt.

     Until then, stay safe, and happy collecting. hardhat2a.gif (5709 bytes)

 

Links

The Niagara Peninsula Geological Society  (Newsletter is called The Pink Dolomite Saddle)

Niagara Falls State Park, Niagara Falls, New York

Thorold Quarry, Ontario, Canada (pink dolomite saddles)

 

Endnotes


[i]   “Limestone and Dolostone”. Arkansas Geological Commission. Little Rock,
AR. 31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.state.ar.us/agc/limeston.htm>

[ii]  Patrick Cassidy (webpublisher). Webster's 1913 Dictionary. “Magnesium”.
<http://www.webster-dictionary.org/definition/magnesium>

[iii] Herschel Friedman. “The Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom: Dolomite”. 2000. 
<http://www.minerals.net/mineral/carbonat/dolomite/dolomite.htm>

[iv]  Moore & Moore Hardware. Portersville, PA. “Lime Spreading”.
<http://www.mooreshardware.biz/limespreading/>

[v]  F.C. Furman; J.M. Gregg; V.C. Ablin; R.E. Moore  “Geological factors controlling
the utility of refractory dolomite: The Cambrian Ledger Formation dolomite, a case study”.
<http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=5011824>

[vi]    Wildernet Guidebook & Map Store (online listing): Classic Dolomite Climbs,
Kohler & Memmel.
<http://store.yahoo.com/wildernet-com/mge031.html >

[vii] Michael W. Smith; Keith B. C. Brady. Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection, Harrisburg and Phillipsburg, PA. “Coal Mine Drainage Prediction and Pollution
Prevention in Pennsylvania: Chapter 13: Alkaline Addition”.
<http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres/districts/CMDP/chap13.html>

[viii]  Keith B. C. Brady; Roger J. Hornberger; Gary Fleeger. Pennsylvania Department
of Environmental Protection, Harrisburg and Pottsville, PA. “Coal Mine Drainage Prediction
and Pollution Prevention in Pennsylvania: Chapter 8: INFLUENCE OF GEOLOGY ON
POSTMINING WATER QUALITY: NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASIN ”.
<http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres/districts/CMDP/Chap08-2.html>

[ix]   National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. “2004 Delaware Estuary Grants Program”.
<http://www.nfwf.org/programs/delaware2004.htm>

[x]  David Bruns. Making Tracks, vol 3, number 9. “News from Rockwoods Reservation:
We Have Karst”. Wildwood, MO.
<http://www.conservation.state.mo.us/documents/areas/stlouis/making_
tracks/2003/MT0903.pdf
>

[xi]   North West Parks and Tourist Board. “North West Province: Overview—
Botsalano Game Reserve: Central Region: Map”.
<http://www.tourismnorthwest.co.za/botsalano/overview.html>

[xii]   Raye Nilius; Geo Graening. “Ozark Underworld”. Endangered Species Bulletin.
Sep./Oct. 2000, vol. XXV, number 5. (p. 14)
<http://endangered.fws.gov/esb/2000/09-10/14-17.pdf>

[xiv]   “Limestone and Dolostone”. Arkansas Geological Commission. Little Rock, AR.
<http://www.state.ar.us/agc/limeston.htm>

[xv]  “Carbonates: Dolomite, Ankerite, Barytocalcite”. Kentucky Geological Survey,
University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY.
<http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/webrokmn/pages/carbonates.html#dolomite>

[xvi]  Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters (PMACMM).
“Rock Identification Guide: Dolostone”.
<http://www.pdac.ca/miningmatters/teachers/resources-rock.html>

[xvii]   “Limestone and Dolostone”. Arkansas Geological Commission. Little Rock, AR.
<http://www.state.ar.us/agc/limeston.htm>

[xviii]   Bureau of Topographic and Geological Survey. “Pennsylvania Trail of Geology:
Park Guide 15: Caledonia and Pine Grove Furnace State Parks”.
<http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/topogeo/parkguides/pg15.pdf>

[xix]  Keith B. C. Brady; Roger J. Hornberger; Gary Fleeger
<http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres/districts/CMDP/Chap08-2.html>

[xx]   Yeates, Herb. The Franklin Mineral Museum, Franklin, NJ. “The Mineral List:
Confirmed Mineral Species from Franklin-Sterling Hill”
<http://www.franklinmineralmuseum.com/list.htm>

    

Article Contributors

Isaias Casanova, IC Minerals

United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management,
National Park Service  (NPS Photo)

 

Photo & Graphics Credits

I would like to gratefully acknowledge the generous contributions of our fellow calcite
enthusiasts, collectors, authors, curators, professionals, and club members who made this
work possible. 
Thanks.

Isaias Casanova, IC Minerals

United States Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management,
National Park Service  (NPS Photo)

Stan Celestian, Glendale Community College, Glendale, Arizona

Susan Celestian, Curator, Arizona Mining and Mineral Museum, Phoenix, Arizona

Niagara Falls State Park, Niagara Falls, New York

2005  All contributions to this article are covered under the copyright protection of this article
and by separate and several copyright protection(s), and are to be used for the sole purposes of
enjoying this scholarly article.  They are used gratefully with express written permission of the
authors, save for generally-accepted scholarly quotes, short in nature, deemed legal to reference
with the appropriate citation and credit.  Reproduction of this article must be obtained by express
written permission of the author, Kenneth B. Casey, for his contributions, authoring, photos, and
graphics.  Use of all other credited materials requires permission of each contributor separately
.

Links and general contact information are included in the credits above, and throughout this article.
The advice offered herein are only suggestions; it is the reader's charge to use the information
contained herein responsibly.  DMS is not responsible for misuse or accidents caused from this
article.


Suggested Reading

 

The Pennsylvania Trail of Geology

Lecture 11: Carbonate reservoir characterization – Geophysical aspects for TGP4177 by Professor Helge Langeland, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim, Norway

Dolomites: A Volume in Honour of Dolomieu (Special Publication of the International
Association of Sedimentologists) by Bruce Purser, Maurice Tucker, Donald Zenger

"The white crystal dolomite deposit near Gouverneur, New York" (Report of investigation -
New York State Science Service, University of the State of New York) by John James
Prucha

"Structure and stratigraphy of the limestones and dolomites of Dauphin County,
Pennsylvania", (Pennsylvania. Topographic and Geologic Survey. General geology
report G44) by David B. MacLachlan

 

KEN.JPG (31503 bytes)

   About the Author:  Ken is current webmaster of the Delaware Mineralogical Society.  He has a diploma in Jewelry Repair, Fabrication & Stonesetting from the Bowman Technical School, Lancaster, PA, and worked as jeweler.  He has also studied geology at the University of Delaware.  And, he is currently a member of the Delaware Mineralogical Society and the Franklin-Ogdensburg Mineralogical Society.  E-mail: kencasey98@yahoo.com.

Webliography

“Limestone and Dolostone”. Arkansas Geological Commission. Little Rock, AR.
31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.state.ar.us/agc/limeston.htm>

Cassidy, Patrick (webpublisher). Webster's 1913 Dictionary. “Magnesium”. Webster's
Revised Unabridged Dictionary Version. C. & G. Merriam Co. Springfield, MA. Under
the direction of Noah Porter, D.D., LL.D. 31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.webster-dictionary.org/definition/magnesium>

Friedman, Herschel. “The Mineral and Gemstone Kingdom: Dolomite”. 2000.
31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.minerals.net/mineral/carbonat/dolomite/dolomite.htm>

Moore & Moore Hardware. Portersville, PA. “Lime Spreading”. 15 Dec. 2004.
31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.mooreshardware.biz/limespreading/>

Furman, F.C.; Gregg, J.M.; Ablin, V.C.; Moore, R.E.  “Geological factors controlling
the utility of refractory dolomite: The Cambrian Ledger Formation dolomite, a case
study”. Energy Citations Database, United States Department of Energy, Office of
Scientific and Technical Information, Washington, D. C. 1 Mar. 1993 (publ.)
13 May 2001 (system entry).  31 Mar. 2005

<http://www.osti.gov/energycitations/product.biblio.jsp?osti_id=5011824>

Wildernet Guidebook & Map Store (online listing): Classic Dolomite Climbs, Kohler
& Memmel. 31 Mar. 2005
<http://store.yahoo.com/wildernet-com/mge031.html >

Smith, Michael W.; Brady, Keith B. C.. Pennsylvania Department of Environmental
Protection, Harrisburg and Phillipsburg, PA. “Coal Mine Drainage Prediction and
Pollution Prevention in Pennsylvania: Chapter 13: Alkaline Addition”. 31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres/districts/CMDP/chap13.html>

Brady, Keith B. C.; Hornberger, Roger J.; Fleeger, Gary. Pennsylvania Department of
Environmental Protection, Harrisburg and Pottsville, PA. “Coal Mine Drainage Prediction
and Pollution Prevention in Pennsylvania: Chapter 8: INFLUENCE OF GEOLOGY ON
POSTMINING WATER QUALITY: NORTHERN APPALACHIAN BASIN ”. 31 Mar. 2005

<http://www.dep.state.pa.us/dep/deputate/minres/districts/CMDP/Chap08-2.html>

National Fish and Wildlife Foundation. “2004 Delaware Estuary Grants Program”.
31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.nfwf.org/programs/delaware2004.htm>

Bruns, David. Making Tracks, vol 3, number 9. “News from Rockwoods
Reservation: We Have Karst”. Wildwood, MO. Sep. 2003. 31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.conservation.state.mo.us/documents/areas/stlouis/making_
tracks/2003/MT0903.pdf
>

North West Parks and Tourist Board. “North West Province: Overview—
Botsalano Game Reserve: Central Region: Map”. 2005. 31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.tourismnorthwest.co.za/botsalano/overview.html>

Nilius, Raye; Graening, Geo. “Ozark Underworld”. Endangered Species
Bulletin. Sep./Oct. 2000, vol. XXV, number 5. (p. 14) 31 Mar. 2005
<http://endangered.fws.gov/esb/2000/09-10/14-17.pdf>

Amethyst Galleries, Inc. “Dolomite”. 1998. 31 Mar. 2005
<http://mineral.galleries.com/minerals/carbonat/dolomite/dolomite.htm>

“Carbonates: Dolomite, Ankerite, Barytocalcite”. Kentucky Geological Survey,
University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY. 31 Mar. 2005. 31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.uky.edu/KGS/coal/webrokmn/pages/carbonates.html#dolomite>

Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada Mining Matters
PMACMM). “Rock Identification Guide: Dolostone”. 2005. 31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.pdac.ca/miningmatters/teachers/resources-rock.html>

Bureau of Topographic and Geological Survey. “Pennsylvania Trail of Geology:
Park Guide 15: Caledonia and Pine Grove Furnace State Parks”. 31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.dcnr.state.pa.us/topogeo/parkguides/pg15.pdf>

Yeates, Herb. The Franklin Mineral Museum, Franklin, NJ. “The Mineral List:
Confirmed Mineral Species from Franklin-Sterling Hill”. 23 Mar. 2005.
31 Mar. 2005
<http://www.franklinmineralmuseum.com/list.htm>

Invitation to Members

Members,

Want to see your name in print?  Want to co-author, contribute, or author a whole Mineral of the Month article?  Well, this the forum for you!

And Members, if you have pictures, or a story you would like to share, please feel free to offer.  We'd like to post them for our mutual enjoyment.   Of course, you get full photo and author credit, and a chance to reach other collectors, hobbyists, and scientists.  We only ask that you check your facts, give credit where it is due, keep it wholesome for our Junior Members watching, and keep on topic regarding rockhounding.

You don't even have to be experienced in making a webpage.  We can work together to publish your story.  A handwritten short story with a Polaroid will do.  If you do fancier, a text document with a digital photo will suit, as well.   Sharing is the groundwork from which we can get your story out there.

Our club's webpages can reach any person surfing the net in the world, and even on the International Space Station, if they have a mind to view our website!

We are hoping for a possible tie-in to other informative programs upon which our fellow members might want to collaborate.  Contact any officer or board member with your suggestions.

May's MOTM will be "Dolomite: Part 2".  For June 2005, we are waiting for your suggestions.  What mineral do you want to know more about?

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All of the Mineral of the Month selections have come from most recent club fieldtrips and March Show Themes, thus far.  If you have a suggestion for a future Mineral of the Month, please e-mail me at: kencasey98@yahoo.com, or tell me at our next meeting.

 

 

 

       

  


Next Meeting
 

April Program, Monday, April 8, 2013:

"Destruction of the Fossil Exposures in the Chesapeake Bay Area" presented by Dr. Lauck Ward

General Club Meeting:
April 8, 2013
(Monday)

We are meeting at
Greenbank Mill


Special Meetings:
 

*Show Committee Meeting, April or May, 2013

*New Home/Lapidary Committee, 2013

*Board Meeting,  April, 2013

Next Field Trips
 

Fieldtrips!

Past Fieldtrips
 

Next Show
DMS March Show
March 1-2, 2014 at DelTech Stanton

 


Our 2013 Show Theme was:
"All That Glitters is as Good as Gold!"

March Show 2013 Report

Updates!

 

 

 
Articles

 

Fossil Forum


"Dinny, the Dino"

"Belemnites are coming"

 

MOTM June also commemorates our 50th Show!

It's shiny, yellow, and is a symbol of 50 Years!Can you guess?

Past MOTM

Collecting Adventure Stories:

"Sunny Brook Crick Goethite" by Joe Dunleavy